Complex Products and Systems (CoPS) are thelarge-scale products, systems or infrastructure of high-cost, technology-intensive, customized, one-piece or small batch production. Enterprises providing CoPS have the ability of integrating multiple professional technologies and products,which are also defined as CoPSintegrators.
Based on the characteristics of complex products and systems innovation, this paper applies multiple theoretical streams including technology innovation system, knowledge management, modular innovationand technological innovation evaluation, game theory from the perspective of CoPS integrators. By means of combining the theoretical deduction and the case study, the innovation of CoPS integrators is investigated from multiple dimensions including CoPS innovation system, knowledge transfer, modular innovation,service innovation and integration inovation.
Firstly, the paper fully considers the integration of products and services from the perspective of CoPS integrators,highlights the synergy of the technical, serviceand management innovation, emphasizes on the guidance of innovation strategy on the entire innovation system, builds the complex products and systems innovation frameworkand achieves the objectives and requirements of innovative products based on the integration solutions. By taking smart grid dispatching technical support system development process as an example, this research work makes comprehensive analysis in technology and service innovation, innovation strategy, organizational innovation and mechanism innovation, to verify the innovation environment for the integrator ofthe smart grid dispatching technical support system and the effectiveness of this innovative activity.
Secondly, based on the proposed innovation framework of complex products and systems, the paper analyzes the 34 constituent elements that influence the technology innovation system of CoPS and the influencing relationship between those elements and the integrators. By means of ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling Method),the system innovation model of CoPS integratorsis constructed, and the components of each subsystem, internal working mechanism and their relationships are also discussed. This model consists mainly of three subsystems: external power system, internal technology innovation system and innovation transformation system. Specifically, the external power system is the driving force of technological innovation of CoPS integrators; the internal innovation system focuses on the core elements of innovation, and the external transformation system describes the results and marketing process from the beginning of the transformation of innovation. Moreover, the paper proposes MTM-CPA model based on the innovation subsystem in the development of CoPS integrators innovation system, providing theoretical support for transnational synergy distribution R&D of complex innovation system integrators.
Thirdly, Built on the theoretical foundation of traditional knowledge transfer framework, the paper proposes a study-based knowledge transfer model from the perspective of knowledge management. The new knowledge transfer model can be used to optimize the content in every stage, making the knowledge transfer at each stage more intelligent and the transfer outcome more objective. The improved transfer model is applied to smart grid dispatching technical support system, to achieve the satisfactory performance. Meanwhile, the paper analyzes the problems and builds the process model of R&D and marketing knowledge interaction, combining complex product systems innovative model framework. Principles of knowledge interaction are established, and instructive suggestions in four aspects of improving the organizational structure, optimizing the interaction mechanism, improving security mechanism, and creating a corporate culture of knowledge interactive are given.
Fourthly, Based on the analysis of CoPS and modularization theory, the process of modularization innovation of CoPS is presented and demonstrated by the development case of power grid wide-area monitoring and control systems.
Fifthly, a simple market model for CoPS is built and the decision-making model of integrated value-added service innovation is constructed for complex product systems integrators with suppliers and customers. A simple market with one CoPS integrator and two suppliers is constructed and their game and evolutionmechanism are studied and analyzed by tools such as multi-agent simulation.
Sixthly, considering the competitive relationship between CoPS integrators and suppliers in the market, a game model is built to analyze CoPS integrators’ and suppliers’ market behavior, and CoPS integrators’ integrated innovation investment strategy. Further, considering the integrated innovation risk factor and output subsidy policy faced by CoPS integrators, this paper analyzes their impacts on CoPS integrators’ integrated innovation investment strategy.
Finally, by means of the Set Pair Analysis (SPA)theory, the method of comprehensive evaluation and decision-making for the innovation achievement of CoPS integratoris proposed, and an example of equipment selection is used to verify the method.