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类型 基础研究 预答辩日期 2017-12-01
开始(开题)日期 2012-10-24 论文结束日期 2017-09-20
地点 机械工程学院南高厅 论文选题来源 国家自然科学基金项目     论文字数 9 (万字)
题目 套索驱动半被动下肢助力外骨骼研究
主题词 半被动下肢助力外骨骼,被动双足行走理论,套索传动系统,运动学与动力学分析,分层递阶智能控制方法
摘要 近年来,衰老、疾病、竞技体育、车祸、自然灾害及日常运动造成的下肢运动功能障碍患者数量呈逐年增加趋势。助力助行及康复训练下肢外骨骼机器人可以提高患者运动能力、保证患者生存质量、减轻患者经济压力及缓解医疗资源紧张,具有广泛的工程应用需求。国内外先进科研机构对下肢外骨骼机器人的研究已取得一些成果,但外骨骼机器人在结构轻量化、低能耗、驱动技术、传感器技术、协调控制及效果评价等方面的研究难点限制了下肢外骨骼机器人的工程应用。本文根据上述研究背景,结合人体下肢运动机理与被动双足行走理论的优点,研制了一款套索驱动半被动下肢助力外骨骼,主要用于下肢运动力量不足的老弱患者的助力助行及康复训练,论文主要研究内容如下: 基于人体解剖学、运动学及测量学,分析了人体下肢关节运动特性、步行周期特性及足部运动状态的相关性,提出整个行走周期包含五种基本行走模式,为通过足底力判断单腿所处相位和后续动力学模型分析与简化提供了理论依据。对揭示被动双足行走理论的无边轮辐模型与最简双足行走模型进行了研究分析,采用庞加莱回归映射法对模型运动极限环的存在及影响因素进行了研究,从模型自身参数配置、重力作用、步态转换及能量补偿类型等角度描述了被动双足行走理论的低能耗特性,对设计更加符合人体自由度设置、低能耗关节驱动方式及质量分布合理的半被动下肢外骨骼具有指导作用。 研制出套索驱动半被动下肢助力外骨骼样机,从机构本体到控制系统硬件设计均遵循机构自身动力学特性、减少主动驱动自由度、增加被动柔顺驱动自由度及减少传感器使用数量的原则。采用电机-双套索传动系统驱动外骨骼主动髋关节,实现关节驱动电机外置及远端柔顺驱动,并通过控制关节电机力矩输出实现外骨骼助力助行目的;采用弹簧与板簧等弹性元件进行被动柔顺关节的设计,实现机构重心的调整及顺应运动趋势的能量存储和释放功能,减少整机能耗及提高整机性能;沿大腿杆的冲量模块作为人机主动作出蹬地-跖屈-屈膝-大腿前屈动作的触发信号,调动穿戴者的主观能动性来更快的完成步态转换及实现肢体力量的增强训练;对具有柔顺传动特性的单套索和双套索传动系统进行了力位传递特性建模分析及实验验证,分析了系统初始预紧力、全曲率、滚轮半径及摩擦系数对套索传动系统摩擦力矩及传动效率的影响,为补偿传动系统摩擦力矩进行了系统内部阻抗力矩参数辨识实验;传感器系统采用正交编码器、足底力测量传感器、人机交互力测量传感器及表面肌电信号测量传感器,用于识别人体运动意图与外骨骼运动状态及评价外骨骼助力效果。 建立外骨骼单腿模型正运动学方程,对外骨骼关节变量进行操作空间与工作空间分析,分别通过几何法和蒙特卡洛法求解外骨骼工作空间。对正运动学方程进行逆向运动学求解,并对速度雅克比矩阵、运动冗余性及运动奇异性进行了分析。针对下肢助力外骨骼行走步态周期内单腿支撑前期与双腿支撑后期两种主要行走模式进行动力学建模分析,得出拉格朗日动力学方程并求解出各关节力矩关系表达式。建立人机外骨骼系统动力学模型,明确系统关节驱动力矩影响因素,对制定人机外骨骼系统助力控制策略具有指导作用。 对人机外骨骼系统控制策略进行了分析,采用基于模型的力矩计算为核心的分层递阶智能控制方法对外骨骼主动关节进行助力控制。首先,通过感知层的传感器系统判定外骨骼关节运动状态及穿戴者运动意图;其次,将感知层信息传递至决策层,分别计算外骨骼关节理想输出力矩、人机交互控制力矩、单腿重力补偿力矩及系统内部阻抗力矩,判断冲量模块释放与否,并对上述力矩进一步运算得出电机理想输出力矩;最后,将电机理想输出力矩计算值及冲量模块释放指令送入执行层,通过伺服驱动电机实现外骨骼主动关节输出力矩控制。为验证外骨骼控制策略的有效性,分别进行了受试者穿戴外骨骼助力行走实验及外骨骼助力效果评价实验。
英文题目 Research on Quasi-passive Power-assisted Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Driven by Tendon-Sheath Actuation System
英文主题词 quasi-passive power-assisted lower-limb exoskeleton,passive bipedal walking theory,tendon-sheath actuation system,kinematic and dynamic analysis,hierarchical intelligent control
英文摘要 In recent years, the number of patients with lower-limb motion dysfunction caused by aging, diseases, athletic sports, car accidents, natural disasters and daily exercise has been increasing. The lower-limb exoskeleton for assistance walking and rehabilitation training can improve patients exercise capacity, ensure their life quality, reduce their economic pressure and alleviate the shortage of medical resources, which has wide application prospects. Some results on the study of the lower-limb exoskeleton has been achieved by the domestic and foreign advanced scientific research institutions, but research limitations in lightweight structure, low energy consumption, driving technology, sensor technology, coordination control and effect evaluation have delayed the engineering application of the exoskeleton. Based on the above research background and combined the advantages of human lower-limb movement mechanism with the passive bipedal walking theory, a quasi-passive power-assisted lower-limb exoskeleton driven by tendon-sheath actuation system is developed. The main research contents of this paper are as follows: Based on the studies in human anatomy, kinematics and measurement, the characteristics and relationships of the lower-limb joint motion, walking cycle and the foot movement are analyzed. The whole walking cycle includes five different walking patterns is proposed and provides the theoretical basis for the subsequent analysis and simplification of dynamic models. Models of the rimless wheel and the simplest bipedal walking which indicate the passive bipedal walking theory are analyzed. The Poincare regression mapping method is adopted to analyze the existence and the influence of motion limit cycles, the passive bipedal walking theory is illustrated in perspectives of the model parameter configuration, action of gravity and energy compensation type, which brings inspiration and guidance to design a power-assisted lower-limb exoskeleton which is more humanoid in the DOF configuration and joint driving style with low energy consumption. A quasi-passive power-assisted lower-limb exoskeleton prototype driven by tendon-sheath actuation system is established and the design of the main structure and control system is following principles of its own dynamics characteristics, reducing the active driving DOFs, increasing the passive compliant driving DOFs and reducing the quantity of sensors. The active hip joint is driven by tendon-sheath actuation system and the walking assistance is achieved by controlling the joint torque output; The passive compliant joint design is implemented by mechanical spring components to adjust the COM of the exoskeleton and comply the movement trend with the energy storage and release, aims to reduce the energy consumption and improve the mechanism performance; The impulse module along the thigh lever is used as the trigger signal for the man-machine initiative movement as pedal, plantar flexion, knee flexion and the thigh flexion to aid the accomplishment of the gait conversion and achievement of the lower limb strength training; Model analysis and experiments about force and displacement transmission characteristics of the compliant single-tendon-sheath and double-tendon-sheath actuation system are accomplished, the effects of pretension, total curvature,the radius of pully and the friction coefficient on the friction torque and the transmission efficiency are analyzed, moreover, the parameter identification experiment of the system internal impedance torque is conducted to compensate the friction torque; The sensor system includes the orthogonal encoder, the plantar force sensor, the human-machine interaction force sensor and the sEMG sensor is installed for the motion identification and the assistance effect evaluation. The positive kinematics equation of the single exoskeleton leg model is built, and the operation space and workspace analysis of joint variables are carried out, the workspace is solved by geometry method and Monte Carlo method respectively. The inverse kinematics solutions of forward kinematics equation, the Jacobin matrix, kinematic redundancy and motion singularity are analyzed. The dynamics model analysis of early single stance phase and late double stance phase of the lower-limb exoskeleton has been conducted, the Lagrange dynamics equations is given and the torque of each joint in the walking process is calculated. The man-machine exoskeleton system dynamics model is analyzed and the influence factors of the joint drive torque are determined, which provides the basic idea to make the assistance control strategy. The control strategy of man-machine exoskeleton system is analyzed and the hierarchical intelligent control method based on the model and the calculated torques is adopted to power-assisted motion control of the exoskeleton active joint. First of all, judge the exoskeleton joint motion and experimenter’s walking intention through the perceptual layer; Secondly, deliver the perceptual layer information to the decision-making layer, based on that, the exoskeleton joint ideal output torque, human-machine control torque, single leg gravity compensation torque and system internal impedance torque is calculated, the impulse module release state is determined, and finally the ideal motor output torque is confirmed; Finally, the value of ideal motor output torque is delivered to the executive layer, through the servo motor to realize the active control of exoskeleton joint. In order to validate the effectiveness of exoskeleton control strategy, the wearing walking tests and exoskeleton assisted effect evaluation are conducted.
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
东南大学机械工程学院 2015年1月21日 机械楼南高厅 Prof. Peter Xu Soft-bodied Robotic Technologies
东南大学机械工程学院 2015年04月30日 机械楼南高厅 朱向阳教授 生机电系统与智能假肢
东南大学机械工程学院 2016年5月22日 纪忠楼副楼101 朱向阳教授 连续体、软体机器人技术
东南大学机械工程学院 2016年5月22日 纪忠楼副楼101 刘成良教授 智能机器人技术及应用
东南大学机械工程学院 2016年5月22日 纪忠楼副楼101 王成勇教授 医疗手术器械设计与制造
东南大学机械工程学院 2016年6月3日 机械楼南高厅 Dr. Yu Haoyong Design and Evaluation of a Compliant Exoskeleton for Stroke Rehabilitation
Lab of A. Ruina Cornell University 2012年10月15日 Kimball hall 309 Andy Ruina A robot that can walk far using little energy
Lab of A. Ruina Cornell University 2012年11月5日 Kimball hall 309 Petr Zaytsev Two steps is enough: No need to plan far ahead for walking balance
Lab of A. Ruina Cornell University 2012年11月19日 Kimball hall 309 奚如如 Report about Path Planning Algorithm
Lab of A. Ruina Cornell University 2013年3月25日 Kimball hall 309 Anoop Grewal A chain that speeds up, rather than slows, due to collisions: How compression can cause tension
机械工程学院王兴松实验室 2013年12月9日 院多媒体教室302 奚如如 Energetics of Actively Powered Locomotion Using the Simplest Walking Model
东南大学机械工程学院 2015年12月4日 院多媒体教室302 奚如如 被动动态双足行走理论研究
机械工程学院王兴松实验室 2017年6月19日 机械学院第一会议室 奚如如 面向智能制造的工业用外骨骼机器人研究
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
2016 M2VIP 2016年12月29号 九龙湖宾馆 B组会议室 Design Concept of the Quasi-passive Energy-efficient Power-assisted Lower-limb Exoskeleton Based on the Theory of Passive Dynamic Walking
机械工程学院100周年院庆报告会 2016年5月22日 院多媒体教室302 套索驱动下肢助力外骨骼研究
Lab of A. Ruina Cornell University 2013年4月15日 Kimball hall 309 A Simple Model of Bipedal Walking Predicts the Preferred Speed–Step Length Relationship
     
代表作
论文名称
套索传动特性建模分析
表征被动双足行走的二维无边轮辐的动力学及稳定性分析
Design concept of the quasi-passive energy-efficient power-assisted lower-limb exoskeleton based on
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
吴洪涛 正高 教授 博导 南京航空航天大学
陆宝春 正高 教授 博导 南京理工大学
陈柏 正高 教授 博导 南京航空航天大学
张志胜 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
帅立国 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
陈斌 其他 东南大学