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类型 基础研究 预答辩日期 2017-11-30
开始(开题)日期 2013-03-21 论文结束日期 2017-10-17
地点 东南大学四牌楼校区人文学院 论文选题来源 非立项    论文字数 15 (万字)
题目 我国基础教育均衡发展的伦理学研究
主题词 教育均衡,个体解放,分配正义,教育共同体,受教育权利
摘要 教育均衡最基本的要求是在教育机构和教育群体之间,平等地分配教育资源,达到教育需求与教育供给的相对均衡。教育作为个体解放的中介环节,把人从自然的质朴性和自然欲望中解放出来,核心和实质就是伦理解放,目标就是造就“有教养的人”。有教养的人的特性是达到普遍性与特殊性的结合,使人和人的行为符合人性本性。教育关系是一个伦理关系,学生、教师、学校、政府等构成了由伦理关系组成的教育共同体的主要部分。教育共同体目标的实现,并不能完全依赖于强制力完成,更多的是不间断的诱导与变化,使得共同体中的不同因子,不断进化,在否定之否定的发展过程中,完成共同体的进化过程。教育均衡原则体现教育共同体的伦理普遍性,其外显形式是对受教育者的知识、意识的传达,内在本质却不限于各类知识的传达,而是在知识之传播过程中贯彻“为义务而行”的目的。这一“义务”便是通过教育共同体内部各因子、部门的自觉行动,努力实现这一共同体的伦理现实性与伦理普遍性,使这一实体成为活的、发展的实体。教育均衡原则具有现实的伦理本质,这一原则在起点上表现为人本原则,其内容包括义务原则、公平原则、辩证原则等各个环节。 教育伦理实体以其系统存在形式,从最初的家庭教育,到传统所认为的严格意义上构成于教师、学校、教育管理机构、教育制度及相关资源,形成了一个完整的教育伦理系统。但以上诸元素均以独立形式存在,无法独立构造实体性的教育。各要素必须充分认识其自身的有限性,自觉成为教育伦理实体的有机组成部分,才有可能共同构造教育系统的伦理实体性,完成教育伦理实体的伦理使命。教师作为教育伦理实体得以展开的第一个环节,以其专业学识和伦理认知完成对被教育者的专门技术的传输和伦理意识的启蒙、改造。这一过程虽然是教育系统第一环节的基本功能,但是,这一功能局限于个体教育者的有限专门知识和个体意志的单一性,无法完成教育系统的实体性目标。学校作为从教师单一性向教育系统实体性转化的中间环节,作为教育系统的特殊性存在,成为教育伦理系统得以展开的重要中介,通过其生源选择、学生教育、资金使用等各方面安排,进一步确认受教育者的人格权利和教育资源的享有权利。受教育者的平等人格,是教育伦理实体的内在规定性。对这一规定性的忠诚保证了教育的伦理实体本性。这一规定性仍然只是抽象的规定性,是教育伦理实体具有现实性的基础,体现在具体教育实践中,便显示为教育的普遍现象,包括教师间共同协作、学校间联盟或对口帮扶、校外公益教育手段等。 教育均衡作为教育工作目标和教育本质规律的基础要求,在长时期的教育实践中面临着政府、学校、教师与学生等的多重矛盾与困境,主要体现在几个方面。一是“个体教育公平”的伦理悖论:“自由择校”与“就近入学”之争;二是“教师流动”的伦理悖论:“正向流动”与“逆向流动”之争;三是“校际合作”的伦理悖论:“资源集中”与“资源分散”之争;四是“政府目标”的伦理悖论:“教育均衡”与“绩效考核”之争。以上伦理困境之成因,主要有三个方面。一是概念认知的原因。也就是对教育均衡发展的概念认知存在偏颇和误解,从而并未认识到教育均衡概念所应有的伦理本质。二是对策思路的原因。即应对教育均衡伦理困境的对策问题,既然没有正确认识教育均衡的伦理本质,那么对教育均衡的伦理困境的认识也可能仅仅浮于表象。因此而出的应对思路和策略,不但难以真正地解决问题,反而会造成教育均衡的伦理困境本身。三是管理体制的原因。教育作为一个共同体和一项公共事业,必须有其管理体制,并且这种管理体制往往是教育共同体的一种具体表现形态。管理体制的合理与否,直接决定着基础教育的均衡发展是否有可能。 教育体系作为一个共同体或者伦理实体,它所表征的含义就是在这样的伦理实体中,使教育共同体中个体的特殊性与实体的普遍性相统一的主观伦理精神客观化、现实化。在这个伦理实体中所涉及的伦理关系,不仅仅是学生、教师、学校、政府之间的相互关系,更是学生、教师、学校、政府与教育伦理实体之间的关系,并且只有他们与教育共同体之间实现统一,才能体现教育的本质。作为共同体的一员,每个人都有受教育的权利,因为每个人都有人之为人的权利。而教育共同体则必须保证其成员享受平等的受教育权利和机会,以使其不断解放自身,摆脱自在的和自为的自由状态,而真正实现自在自为的自由状态。
英文题目 THE ETHICAL STUDY ON BALANCED DEVELOPENT OF BASIC EDUCATION IN CHINA
英文主题词 balanced education,individual liberation,distributive justice,the community of education,the right to education
英文摘要 The fundamental requirement of educational equilibrium is to equally distribute educational resources between educational institutions and educational groups in a gesture to strike the relative balance between education supply and education demand. As a limited medium for individual liberation , education sets man loose from natural simplicity and natural desire, whose core and essence is ethics liberation and whose aim is to turn out “civilized man”. The feature of educated man is combination of universality and particularity , which corresponds with human and human behavior. Education relationship is a ethics community, composed of students、 teachers 、schools and governments. It is not total reliance on compulsive forces but continuous induction and changes which cause different factors of the community to evolve into the opposite and complete the evolution process that lead to the realization of the aim of educational community. Educational equilibrium embodies ethics universality of the community, whose explicit forms get across knowledge and awareness of the educated and inner essence comes to be actions for the obligation by means of getting rid of spread of knowledge. Obligation realizes ethics universality and ethics entity by means of autonomous co-operations of all factors and departments, making the community living and developmental. Educational equilibrium comprises actual ethnics essence, which starting-point is human –centered principles , which consist of obligation principles and fairness principles and dialectic principles. Education ethnics community exists in the form of systems which evolve from initial family education to a complete educational ethnics system which is made up of teachers, schools ,educational administration institutions, education regulations and relevant resources. Above-mentioned factors exist independently, which fail to form educational theory of the community. All factors must fully realize the limits of themselves and automatically become organic components of the educational ethics community and accomplish the ethnics mission. Teachers ,as the first link of expansion of the ethics community, carry out the transmission of special technology and enlightenment of ethics awareness of the educated in the light of teachers’ knowledge and ethics. While this process is the basic function of the first link of educational system, this function is restricted to limited specialized knowledge and oneness of will of individual educators, failing to accomplish physical objectives of educational systems . Schools, an intermediate link from teachers’ oneness to reality of educational systems and a special existence of educational systems, become an important medium by which educational systems can be unfolded and further confirm the rights of personality and ownership of educational resources by means of selection of students, education of students and utilization of funds. Equal personality of the educated is inner stipulation of educational ethics community. Loyalty to this stipulation ensures the nature of ethics community. Although this stipulation is abstract and fundamental to the entity of ethnics community , it is reflected in concrete educational practice, indicating universal phenomena including teachers’ co-operation, schools’ alliance and correspondent support and extramural public welfare. Educational equilibrium, a basic appeal for educational nature, is constantly confronted with multiple contradiction and dilemma , which are embodied in several aspects. The first is ethnics paradox for individual educational fairness, that is , free selection of schools and admission to one’s nearest home. The second ethnics paradox is teachers’ mobility, that is , positive mobility and negative mobility. The third ethics paradox is interschool cooperation, that is, concentration of educational resources and dispersion of educational resources. The fourth ethnics paradox is government objectives, that is , education equilibrium and performance appraisal. Three factors account these paradoxes. The first factor is partial cognition of conception of education equilibrium and failure to recognize the true nature. The second factor is lack of proper countermeasures due to misunderstanding of ethics nature of education equilibrium and superficial knowledge of ethics dilemma, thus unsuccessful in addressing these issues. The third factor is management system. Education, as a community and a human service, must have its own management system, which is a concrete form of educational community. The rationality of management determines the development of educational equilibrium. Education system, a community or an ethnics entity, makes subjective ethics spirit combining individual particularity and universality of entity objective and realistic. These ethics relationship involved in the ethics entity are not only the relationships among students, teachers, schools and governments, but also the relationships among students, teachers, schools, governments and ethnics entity. Only by combining these relationships and educational community, educational nature can be discovered and employed. As one member of the community, everyone has the right to receive education and become a human. The educational community must ensure members equal access to education so that they can be set loose and gain real freedom.
学术讨论
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南京师范大学 2015年11月15日 南京师大教科院 徐伯钧 普通高中课程改深化的问题与对策
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东南大学 2013年12月18日 东南大学人文学院 黎松 当代道德的非理性趋势
华南师范大学 2013年12月21日 华南师范大学 徐伯钧 教育均衡的伦理困境及伦理成因研究
东南大学团委 2011年9月16日 东南大学人文学院 樊和平 文化能力与生存困境
东南大学 2014年6月27日 东南大学人文学院 周天策 竺道生与冈巴波的佛性思想比较
东南大学 2013年11月28日 东南大学人文学院 徐伯钧 教育均衡的伦理性质
东南大学 2013年10月29日 东南大学人文学院 刘战雄 智能手机价值倾向性分析
东南大学 2011年12月1日 东南大学人文学院 何菁 工程伦理的道德哲学研究九夷文化隅证
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
中国伦理学研究高峰论坛 2015年6月19日 上海交通大学 教育均衡的伦理实践研究
伦理学年会 2015年11月27日 西南大学 教育均衡伦理困境的对策研究
     
代表作
论文名称
教育均衡的伦理性质
普通高中新课程改革实施中的异化现象令人担忧
教育均衡的伦理实践
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
黄明理 正高 教授 博导 河海大学
陈继红 正高 教授 博导 南京大学
岳缙 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
徐嘉 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
魏福明 副高 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
万旭 其他 讲师 东南大学