Since the establishment of the royal architectural research society of France in 1671, the western architectural education has undergone complex changes along with advances in social environment, technological level, culture and art. Throughout the history of the development of architectural education, avant-garde architects and groups emerged. They were not satisfied with the status tuo of architectural education, and were committed to creativity, exploration and breaking boundaries in design and teaching, and eventually blazed new paths to promote the progress of architectural education.
Established in 1919, the Bauhaus complied with the spirit of the times and society and set new course for western modern architectural education. It also led to a revolution in art and architectural education, and had a profound impact in the practices of architecture, fine arts and industrial design. After Bauhaus was introduced into the United States and developed into a system, the avant-garde ideas of modernism architecture and education had dried up. At this time, the Texas Rangers started to establish a modern architectural design method and a new language system, developed a series of plans to revolutionize architectural teaching, and had global influences. The worldwide outbreak of social and cultural movement in the 1960s, caused dramatic changes in architectural education during this period. Independent colleges represented by Southern California Institute of Architecture, were opposed to the mainstream of education, and explored new ways in school organization, educational ideas, teaching methods and building of relationships between education and society and other aspects of their teaching practices. Since 1990s, under the background of globalization and informatization, the vanguardism of architectural education has acquired new connotation, which is reflected in the continuous development of architecture research toward the digital field.
These historic explorations in avant-garde education were the driving force for the transformation of architectural education, and also the basis for the division of historical periods and chapters in this thesis. They linked a series of events of Modern Architectural Education, including the foundation of Bauhaus, systemization of which in the United States, revision of which by the Texas Rangers, and the rebellion of which by the post modernists, and the new development of contemporary architectural education. This thesis will place the research on avant-garde architectural education in the historical background of the overall development of western architectural education, with clear coordinates in the whole development of education in general. For each period this study will focus on several levels: firstly, the discussion of specific contexts, including society, culture, avant-garde art background, overall situation of architectural education, architectural theory situation, with analysis of their influences on the avant-garde education; secondly, case studies of representative architectural colleges and institutes, including basic situation of the school, main representative persons , leading teaching idea and curriculum system, and teaching experimentations; finally, the study of influence of avant-garde architectural education, in order to clarify its branches.
The thesis finally summarizes the Western avant-garde architectural education conditions of the birth and common features, and compares the avant-garde architectural education in China, analyzes and summarizes the differences between the two and the enlightenment of Architectural Education in China.