返回
类型 基础研究 预答辩日期 2018-03-28
开始(开题)日期 2013-11-14 论文结束日期 2017-11-09
地点 逸夫楼10楼会议室 论文选题来源 非立项    论文字数 24 (万字)
题目 大事件视角下的南京近代城市空间演进研究(1840-1937)
主题词 城市空间,大事件,空间结构,空间功能,近代化
摘要 鸦片战争后,南京先后经历了太平天国起义、洋务运动、戊戌变法、开埠通商、新政、国民政府奠都、首都建设等接连重大事件的洗礼。特别是作为太平天国和国民政府首都的两段经历,相比国内其他城市的近代发展经历来说是十分罕见的。与城市自发的缓慢的进化过程有所不同,大事件作为一种对城市发展的特定干预,其发生通常具有一定的偶然性和突发性,且有着影响力巨大、显效迅速等特点。在短时间内就可以集聚形成一股强大的变革力量,干预和影响着城市空间的演进历程。结合近代中国及南京所发生的主要重大事件,将1840-1937近年百年的时间划分为三个阶段,即晚清战火中的空间破坏与衰败期(1840-1881);洋务风潮下的空间发展与转型期(1882-1926);首都建设期间的空间规划与重构期(1927-1937)。意在通过总结南京近代城市空间的阶段演化特征,分析在大事件干扰下城市空间在功能和结构上发生的改变以及空间自身对于这种干扰的应对表现。由表及里、由现象到本质,挖掘在事件干扰背后隐藏的城市空间内在的组织逻辑,演化规律和作用机制。 研究发现,1840-1881年间,内忧外患之下,南京接连遭受战火的洗礼。特别是洪秀全统治期间,南京城市空间基本处于紊乱、重置的状态。湘军克复后,这种对空间发展的极端干预虽然很快烟消云散,但战争的重创不仅使原有城市功能发生了衰退,还延缓了新的功能要素的产生。总体来看,城市空间演进是处于不断衰败的状态。1882-1926年间,受洋务新风等的影响,南京步入了近代化的发展阶段。集中的变化发生在新政之后,新学、实业、医院、教会、金融、近代交通等功能要素在城内不断涌现。不过,这种自上而下的决策干预仅仅持续了十年,就以辛亥革命的爆发而告终。军阀混战期间,南京城市建设十分缓慢。下关滨江地区却因开埠得到了飞快的发展,还带动了城内与商贸往来相关的行业的兴盛。城市空间开始向城中以东及城外沿江地区拓展。不过这种改变只是基于长期稳定的空间框架的局部调整,是一个“量”的积累过程,并没有带来空间结构的“质”的改变,城市空间演进处于功能转型和结构调整的酝酿阶段。1927-1937年间,南京迎来了近代城建史上的“黄金十年”。“城市规划”开始在城市建设和发展中崭露头角、发挥作用。虽然这些规划的实施程度并不高,却足以给城市空间结构带来巨大的改变。首都干道系统建成后,中山大道及其各向延长线构成了新的城市发展轴线,新街口一跃成为城市中心之所在,城市空间开始向西北方向拓展,城市空间演化处于重构发展的阶段。至此,从明代起南京一直固守的空间格局终于被打破。 总而言之,1840-1937年间南京城市空间演进是一个自然生长和大事件干预复合发展的过程,其中空间的自生发展作为一种城市发展内在的自组织机制,隐形而长效的作用于城市空间演进的整个过程当中,而大事件干预作为空间发展的随机涨落,即时显性的作用于城市空间演进的某一阶段,其产生的空间效应可能是一个缓慢的渐变和积累过程,也可能产生一个“质”的突破性的跃升。
英文题目 Research on the Evolution of Urban Space in Modern Nanking from 1840 to 1937 with the Perspective of Mega-events
英文主题词 Urban Space; Mega-events; Spatial Structure; Spatial Function; Modernization
英文摘要 After the first Opium War, the development of Nanking city was also influenced by other mega-events, such as the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, the Westernization Movement, the 1911 Revolution, Opening of Hsia Kuan, the ‘New Policies’ of Latter Stage in Qing Dynasty, City planning of Nanking in the period of Nanking KMT Government. Furthermore, the experiences of taking as the capital of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the KMT Government were very unique to the modern development history of other Chinese city. Focuses on the related mega-events in Modern China and Nanking, the range research from 1840 to 1937 can be basically divided into three stages, which are Space Decline and Destruction in later Qing Dynasty (1840-1881), Space Development and Transformation on the influence of Westernization (1882-1927), Space Planning and Reconstruction during the period of the KMT Government. Through summarizing on the periodic characteristics of Nanking’s spatial evolution, analyzing the changes and countermeasures of urban function and urban structure interfered by the mega-events, the research purpose is to find out the hiding logic of urban construction, the mechanism and basic laws during the spatial evolution from to the phenomena to the essence on the influence of mega-events. The research shows the results as followings. From 1840 to 1881, Nanking suffered from a huge damage from a series of wars. During the period of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the process of urban spatial development were in the state of disorder, and the spatial structure was reconfigured under the command of HONG xiu-quan. When the Hunan Army recaptured the city in 1864, the extreme intervention of Taiping army to Nanking’s spatial development was disappear as well. Nevertheless, the wars in quick succession, not only caused the decline of the original spatial function, but also retard the growth of new ones. Overall, the process of urban spatial development was at stage of decline. From 1882 to 1926, Nanking entered into an important development stage of city modernization affected by the new tide of Westernization Movement. Protestant Hospitals, Modern Industrial Factories, European Churches and Modern Financial Institutions began to emerge in abundance after 1900. But the intervention from Qing government was ended by the 1911 Revolution ten years later. During the period of Beiyang Government, the construction of Nanking city was quite slow. In the opposite direction, Hsia Kuan was developed rapidly because of opening market for trade, which promoted the prosperity of industry related to the business and trade inside the city wall. Urban space began to expand both eastward in the middle of the city and along the Yangtze river bank outside the city. However, the above structural change was only a kind of partial adjustment, which didn’t bring the whole change of the urban space. So the process of urban spatial development was at the stage of structural and functional adjustment. The period of 1927 to1937 was commonly called ‘the golden age’in the modern construction history of Nanking. Urban planning began to use and act in Nanking’s urban development. Although the level of plan implementation was not enough, it also brought the huge changes to the spatial structure. When the capital road system was established, Zhongshan Avenue and its following roads constituted the new growing axes of Nanking. Xin Jie Kou became the core of the city in this new structure. Urban space began to expand northwest. The process of the urban spatial development was at the stage of reconstruction. With this step, Nanking’s traditional spatial situation from Ming Dynasty was broken finally. All in all, the evolution of Nanking’s urban spatial development is a combination of the self-development and hetero-development affected by the mega-events. Among these, the self-development which is taken as a kind of hiding self-organization extend throughout the whole evolution process, and the herero-development under the influence of mega-events, which is taken as a kind of dominant random fluctuations, happened at a certain stage. In this case, there are two possible results. When the self-development dominates, it will be a slow accumulation and transition process of the urban space. When the intervening of the mega-events is big enough, it will bring a structural change of the urban space in a short time.
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
空间句法中国公司 东南大学建筑学院 2016.11.04 东南大学逸夫楼报告厅 段进 空间发展过程的句法分析——以近代南京百年兴衰为例
课题小组 2014.05.17 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 黄永和 Trip Analysis--From Location tracking data at the FORD EQO
课题小组 2014.04.10 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 黄永和 CH&INT Data Analysis
课题小组 2014.02.21 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 宋晓宇 空间句法数据分析
东南大学城市规划设计研究院 2015.05.15 东南大学规划院小会议室 陆涵 空间句法简要说明
课题小组 2014.03.17 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 陆涵 LTA Space Level Analysis
课题小组 2014.02.12 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 陆涵 GZLM Analysis
课题小组 2014.01.22 密大建筑学院二楼小会议室 陆涵 空间句法数据分析
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
22nd ISUF International Conference 2015.09.13 罗马大学 大事件影响下的城市空间形态演进研究——以南京为例(1865-1927)
9th International Space Syntax Symposium 2013.10.31 世宗大学 空间句法在城市总体规划中的应用——以阜阳为例
     
代表作
论文名称
人类文明视角下的城湖关系演变研究
人口老龄化加速背景下的城市规划应对思考
南京下关商埠的兴起与发展刍议(1840-1926)
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
张宏 正高 教授 博导 东南大学建筑学院
夏铸九 正高 教授 博导 东南大学建筑学院/ 台湾大学
吴晓 正高 教授 博导 东南大学建筑学院
陈沧杰 正高 教授级高工 硕导 江苏省城市规划设计研究院/南京大学
施梁 正高 教授 硕导 南京工业大学建筑与规划学院
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
殷铭 其他 讲师 东南大学建筑学院