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类型 应用研究 预答辩日期 2018-03-04
开始(开题)日期 2014-06-05 论文结束日期 2018-01-17
地点 热能所一楼会议室 论文选题来源 中央、国家各部门项目     论文字数 5.9 (万字)
题目 分散式生活污水产甲烷反硝化除臭生物生态耦合工艺及机理研究
主题词 分散式生活污水,毛毡厌氧滤池(AWFR),缺氧滤池(ANF),跌水生物转(WDSRBC),种植型湿地(PCW)
摘要 虽然集中式污水处理技术在水体污染控制方面发挥着至关重要的作用,被广泛应用于城市污水处理厂。由于农村地区人口分散,经济发展相对滞后,缺乏完善的污水收集系统,限制了集中式污水处理技术的应用。针对农村分散式生活污水,本研究基于“污水转化为能源和资源”理念,兼顾污水除臭技术要求,开发了 “毛毡式厌氧滤池(AWFR)-缺氧滤池(ANF)-跌水生物转盘(WDSRBC)-种植型湿地(PCW)”生物生态组合工艺。该工艺主要特点:(1)不采用加热保温的方式,在环境温度下利用毛毡式厌氧滤池将污水中的有机物转化为能源性气体甲烷;(2)开发低能耗的跌水生物转盘,通过其硝化液回流至缺氧滤池实现反硝化除臭;(3)将蔬菜和粮食作物应用生态单元,构建种植型湿地实现氮、磷资源化利用。主要研究内容及结果如下: 为了优化AWFR,首先采用小试装置考察毛毡填充率对启动效能的影响,发现随着填充率的增加,AWFR系统对COD和SS的去除效能增强,出水VFA降低。适当的提高系统填料填充率有利于缩短AWFR系统启动时间,稳定运行效能。填充率为40%的AWFR系统虽对COD和SS的去除效能略低于填充率为55%的AWFR系统,为了防止过高毛毡填充率对系统造成堵塞,综合考虑建议AWFR系统的填充率为40%。 其次应用中试装置研究不同季节HRT对AWFR运行效能的影响,评估环境温度下的全年运行效能,利用物料平衡分析有机物的转化途径,同时结合扫描电镜和高通量测序技术从微生物学的角度全面解析菌群结构与运行效能之间的关联。研究发现随着HRT的延长,COD的去除率提高,出水VFA降低。季节性温度的降低导致系统需要更长的HRT来稳定运行效能。全年运行效能表明,COD的去除率和日产气量随着季节性温度的升高和水力停留时间的缩短而显著提高,出水VFA则随之降低。夏季COD去除率提高到76±7.2%,日产气量达到峰值10.7L/d。COD平衡分析表明约有43.5%-52.5%的进水COD能被转化为甲烷。 高通量测序表明整个运行阶段微生物协同作用利用有机物转化为甲烷,参与有机物代谢转化的芽孢杆菌属始终为优势细菌菌属,鬃毛甲烷菌属,甲烷杆菌属和甲烷绳菌属为优势产甲烷菌属。季节温度和HRT的变化造成优势甲烷菌由夏季乙酸型产甲烷菌转为冬季的氢营养型甲烷菌,以保证系统达到新的平衡状态。 WDSRBC以跌水的方式驱动改进传统生物转盘,其结构的优化直接影响到ANF-WDSRBC反硝化除臭。跌水高度、HRT和进水氨氮浓度都成为WDSRBC设计的影响因素。本研究首次提出应用Box-Behnken响应曲面法构建WDSRBC对氨氮去除率预测模型,以跌水高度(X1),HRT(X2)和进水氨氮浓度(X3)为因素,氨氮去除率(R)为响应值,考察各因素以及各因素之间交互作用对WDSRBC系统氨氮去除率的影响。结果表明进水氨氮浓度、跌水高度、HRT、HRT与跌水高度之间以及HRT与进水氨氮浓度之间的交互关系显著,优化后的预测模型为:R=87.86+2.37X1+5.30 X2-4.25X3+1.19 X1 X2-1.81 X2 X3-2.52X12-4.62X22-2.11X32。跌水高度在0.6m,HRT在2.2h以上,进水氨氮浓度在20-50mg/L范围内,系统对氨氮的去除率维持在80%以上。 ANF-WDSRBC系统利用WDSRBC硝化液回流,以硝酸盐和溶解氧为电子受体反硝化除臭脱氮,研究发现出水嗅阈值(TON)随着回流比增大,HRT延长,进水DO和硝酸盐负荷提高逐渐降低。在脱氮方面,TN的去除率随着回流比的增大先升高再降低。而HRT的延长和硝酸盐负荷增大有利于TN去除率逐渐升高。DO的提高明显抑制系统反硝化导致TN的去除率下降。为了平衡系统除臭脱氮效能,ANF-WDSRBC在回流比为100%,HRT为8.8h下运行,出水COD,氨氮和TN的平均浓度分别为35.0mg/L,3.7mg/L和17.1mg/L,硫化物的平均出水浓度为 0.95 mg/L,TON平均值为16.2,达到《恶臭污染物排放标准》(GB1554-93)二级标准。 利用高通量测序解析各单元微生物菌群结构,表明系统内的微生物呈现多样性分布,各单元微生物菌群协同作用。在ANF单元主要通过长绳菌属,新月菌属和Bellilinea转化有机物;硫杆菌属参与反硝化脱硫除臭代谢,索氏菌属和芽孢杆菌属参与反硝化脱氮代谢。在WDSRBC单元通过亚硝化单胞菌属,亚硝化螺旋菌属,芽孢杆菌属和硝化螺旋菌属参与硝化反应。 通过在种植型湿地PCW栽种空心菜、水稻,水芹和小麦研究系统对氮、磷资源化利用,发现PCW对TN和TP去除率随着水力负荷的降低呈现上升趋势,在面积许可的情况下,低水力负荷运行有利于提高PCW内植物产量。PCW在水力负荷0.2 m3/(m2?d)下长期运行,夏秋季空心菜水稻的吸收对氮、磷去除率的贡献分别为18.2%和31.9%,高于冬春季节水芹小麦组合系统(TN:15.1%,TP:23.4%)。
英文题目 RESEARCH ON THE PERFORMANCE AND MECHANISM OF METHANE PRODUCTION, DENITRIFICATION AND DEODORIZATION IN BIOECOLOGICAL PROCESS OF DECENTRALIZED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT
英文主题词 decentralized domestic wastewater, anaerobic wool-felt filter (AWFR),anoxic filter (ANF),water-dropping self-rotating biological reactor (WDSRBC), plant type construct wetland (PCW)
英文摘要 Generally, centralized biological processes are of great importance for water pollution control and have been well developed to be used in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Due to the dispersed population, poor wastewater collection, and weaker economy in rural areas, they are still not suitable for rural areas. Based on the concept of “wastewater to energy and resources”, and to meet the demand of wastewater deodorization, we explore a bioecological process comprised of three-stage anaerobic wool-felt filter reactor (AWFR), an anoxic filter (ANF), four-stage water-dropping-self-rotating biological contactor (WDSRBC) and plant type construct wetland (PCW) to treat rural decentralized domestic wastewater. The advantages of the process may display, (1) The AWFR units are used for the conversion of organic matter to methane at ambient temperature without heating, (2) A low-enery ANF-WDSRBC system is explored to denitrification and odor removal in the ANF unit via WDSRBC effluent reflux. (3) The nutrients, such as N and P, are utilized by the ecological PCW unit via planting vegetables and food crop. The main results of this study are summaried as follows: Firstly, in order to optimize the structure of AWFR, we used lab-scale AWFR to assess the effects of carrier filling ratio on the performances of AWFR under start-up conditions. The study showed with an increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removal efficiencies of COD and SS gradually increased, whereas the VFA of the effluent decreased. Appropriately increasing carrier filling ratio in the system was beneficial to shorten the start-up time and stabilize the operation performance. The performance of AWFR40% was slightly lower than the AWFR55% systems. Considering the proper carrier filling ratio chosen to minimize clogging in the system, we recommend carrier filling ratio of wool-felt in the system is 40%. Secondly, the pilot-scale AWFR was design to investigate the effect of HRT on the performance of AWFR in different seasons. In order to evaluate the annual performance of the system at ambient temperature, we used mass balance to analysis the pathway of organic matter removal. Meanwhile, the techniques of SEM and high-throughput sequencing were used to comprehensively analyze of the relationship between the structure of microbial community and the performance of the system. It found that COD removal efficiency increased with the extension of HRT, whereas the VFA of the effluent decreased. The system required long HRT to to stabilize the performance due to a decrease of seasonal temperature. The annual performance of the system showed that COD removal efficiency and daily gas production increased significantly with an increase of seasonal temperature and a decrease of HRT, whereas the VFA of the effluent decreased. In summer, COD removal efficiency increased to 76 ± 7.2%, while daily gas production reached a peak value of 10.7L/d. Based on COD mass balance, we found that approximately 43.5% -52.5% of influent COD was converted to methane. Throughout the whole operation, microbial communities maintained high diversity to convert organic matter to methane. Bacillus, which contributed to the fermentation, was always the most abundant genus, whereas the genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanolinea were the predominant methanogens. Seasonal temperature and HRT had a strong impact on the relative abundance of methanogens. In order to keep the system achieve a new equilibrium, the most predominant methanogens shifted from acetoclastic methanogens in summer to the hydrogenotrophic methanogens in winter. Thirdly, as a modified rotating biological contactor, the structure of WDSRBC units directly affects the ANF-WDSRBC denitrification and deodorization. Due to water-dropping gravity rotation of the WDSRBC, water-dropping height, HRT and influent ammonium concentration were key factors of the system performance. In order to optimize the performance of ammonium removal efficiency in the WDSRBC system, response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to assess the effects of the three parameters and their interactions. The results showed that water-dropping height, HRT, influent ammonium concentration, the interaction of water-dropping height and HRT, the interaction of HRT and influent ammonium concentration were significant parameters. The modified model was as follow:R=87.86+2.37X1+5.30 X2-4.25X3+1.19 X1 X2-1.81 X2 X3-2.52X12-4.62X22-2.11X32. The removal efficiency of ammonium of 80% was achieved, when the system was operated with the influent ammonium concentration ranged from 20-50 mg/L, water-dropping height 0.6 m, and an HRT of 2.2 h. In order to achieve denitrification and deodorization in the ANF-WDSRBC system, WDSRBC effluent was recycled to ANF to utilize nitrate and dissolved oxygen(DO). The study showed that the odor threshold (TON) gradually decreased with the increase of reflux, HRT, DO and nitrate loading rate. However, TN removal efficiency increased at first followed by a decline as reflux ratio increased. Increasing HRT and nitrate loading rate were beneficial to TN removal, whereas high DO concentration decreased TN removal owing to inhibition of denitrification. To balance the performance of deodorization and nitrogen removal, the system was used to treat the effluent of AWFR under continuous-flow operation with a total HRT of 8.8 h and a reflux ratio of 100%. The average concentrations of COD, NH4+–N, and TN effluent were 35.0mg/L,3.7mg/L and 17.1mg/L, respectively. The effluent TON was 16.2, which reached the level-two emission standard in the “Emission standards for odor pollutants" (GB 14554-93). Based on the High-thoughtput sequencing, the results demonstrated that microbial community in different units of the system maintained diversity, The genera Longilinea, Meniscus, and Bellilinea in the ANF unit were the main genera to participate in organic matter degradation, whereas Thiobacillus and Thauera contributed considerably to denitrification, odor and nitrogen removal. In the WDSRBC units the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Bacillus, and Nitrospira played vital roles in nitrification. Finally, the study was to investigate the performance of PCW system to utilize nitrogen and phosphorus via planting water spinach, rice, water fennel and wheat. It found that the removal efficiencies of TN and TP increased with hydraulic loading rate (HLR) decreased. Lower HLR was beneficial to improve the production of plants in system.When the PCW system was operated at an HLR of 0.2 m3/(m2?d), the contributions of water spinach and rice of the PCW system to utilized of nitrogen and phosphorus were 18.2% and 31.9%, respectively, that was higher than the contributions of water fennel and wheat( TN 15.1% , TP 23.4%, respectively).
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
吕锡武课题组 2014.04.25 无锡分校 李娟红 开题报告
吕锡武课题组 2014.07.18 无锡分校 李娟红 AWFR预处理分散式生活污水实验
吕锡武课题组 2015.11.27 无锡分校 李娟红 跌水生物转盘去除氨氮进展报告
吕锡武课题组 2016.10.20 无锡分校 李娟红 ANF-WDSRBC反硝化除臭实验
吕锡武课题组 2014.10.25 无锡分校 李洁 湿地氮磷资源化利用进展报告
吕锡武课题组 2015.3.10 无锡分校 徐峰 ABR厌氧实验进展报告
吕锡武课题组 2016.9.15 无锡分校 冯静娴 跌水生物转盘实验进展报告
吕锡武课题组 2017.3.21 无锡分校 查晓 ABR处理黑水实验进展报告
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
第十八届海峡两岸环境保护研讨会 2017.11.10-2017.11.15 台湾大学 A combined system ANF-WDSRBC for the post-treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater
The Eighth International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology 2016.6.5-6.9 美国休斯顿 Pretreatment performance of a novel AWFR for decentralized domestic wastewater
     
代表作
论文名称
Effect of Seasonal Temperature on the Performance and on the Microbial Community of a Novel AWFR for
Performance and Microbial Diversity in a Low-Energy ANF-WDSRBC System for the Post-Treatment of Dece
响应曲面优化跌水生物转盘去除氨氮的研究
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
姚重华 正高 教授 博导 华东理工大学
张雁秋 正高 教授 博导 中国矿业大学
仲兆平 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
杨林军 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
余冉 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
邵云 其他 讲师 东南大学