Based on Hegel’s theory of moral philosophy mainly in Phenomenology of Spirit and Philosophy of Law, this paper studies the various forms of ethical entities and their spiritual philosophy system.
In Hegel’s philosophy, ethics is not only a universal thing in nature, but also an entity reality. The physical nature of ethics must be achieved through the unity of the spirit of the single object and the universal thing, and the spiritual dialectical process which the ethics have experienced in acquiring its own entity constitutes the spiritual philosophy form of the ethical entity. Therefore, the ethical entity is in the spirit of the existence of the ethical aspects, on the other hand, it is the objective reality of ethics, the family, civil society and the reality of the state.
The direct form as an ethical entity is family that the relationship between which is not the actual relationship between individual members, but the ethical relationship between the individual and the family entity. The family has reached the spiritual unity between the individual and the entity in the emotional connection of love, and it is accompanied by the disintegration of the marriage, family property and children’s education link. Disintegration of the family on the one hand to expand the division into more families, on the other hand lead the individual to society. The individual in the family follows the hidden entity principle namely the God law, follows the public authoritative principle in the society namely the human law, both constitute the ethics world. Because of the different tendencies between the dialectical development and the mutual transition between the two laws, it is the different of the rule of man and the rule of God that this kind of different makes the difference between the eastern and Western cultural patterns. Due to the disintegration of the family, the individual is out of the family entity, the predetermined balance between the two laws in the ethical world is broken by the individual’s ethical behavior, the individual behavior is no longer the content of the family, but with a sorrowful sentiment into the right state of the individual. Thus, the ethical entity begins to transition from the direct-form family to the alienation-shaped civil society.
The civil society is the alienation form of the ethical entity, the alienation means the universality of ethics in civil society is in the illusion. In the legal state, the individual becomes the individual of the atom, and the ethic is divided into the unity of the individual without spirit and without the common body. For the realization of their own welfare and benefit, the individual is called civil society through the form of interrelated composition. Therefore, the spiritual essence of the civil society is the universality of the content of the specific individual, which forms the system of the need of others as the intermediary. In the civil society, the individual on the one hand to the satisfaction of their own needs for the purpose, on the other hand, the universality of ethics, and education to nurture the individual’s upbringing so that they have a promotion of the inherent possibility of universality, the police and the Association for the realization of the ethical universality provides the external guarantee However, whether it is from the logic of spiritual development or the investigation of concrete historical form, civil society is a stage which exists as a kind of inherent negation and reality limitation. The contradiction between the special individual and the form universality is the inner negation of the civil society, and it promotes the higher form of the civil society to the ethical entity-the state transition, which is the "hypocrisy" problem and the ethical and moral paradox in the civil society reality.
As the reality of the ethical idea, the state has not only abandoned the universality of the civil society, but also retained the entity spirit of the family, and the individual has not only obtained the substantive stipulation in the country, but also obtained the universal content of the ethic. Therefore, the State constitutes the reversion form of the ethical entity. The spiritual essence of the state is that the individual realizes the unity of himself and the entity, and consciously maintains this entity through action. The individual obtains the freedom freely in the country, while the individual obtains the freedom and the satisfaction in the faith of God to have the higher universality, therefore, the religion has formed the National Spiritual Foundation in the abstract aspect. In history and reality, the relationship between religion and State has undergone dialectical development process from mutual antagonism to benign interaction, and with the decline of religion in modern society, the limitation of the development of national theory has gradually emerged. The perfect concept did not reach the point of rationality in reality, it still faces a variety of limitations and internal contradictions. The state as a product of the historical stage, which means that it will inevitably with the development of history to the end. In this case, China’s individual-family-state-the World cultural model has provide the possibility for the further development of ethical entities. The concept of the world above the state has greater ethical universality, and it has become a direct cultural resource of modern ethical entity construction.
The development of modern social Information technology makes the exchange and communication of human culture transcend national boundaries. The impact of information technology, the disenchantment of ethical entities, deconstruction and subversion have caused the modern civilization to encounter the "moral stranger" problem. The various forms of the ethical entity and the spiritual philosophy system formed by it will understand the human community as an ethical entity form, provide a base for people to settle down and spiritual homeland, and guide an ethical "return to the countryside" for the "moral stranger".