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类型 基础研究 预答辩日期 2017-11-30
开始(开题)日期 2014-11-20 论文结束日期 2017-10-15
地点 四牌楼人文学院 论文选题来源 非立项    论文字数 16 (万字)
题目 伦理实体的精神哲学形态——基于黑格尔道德哲学研究
主题词 伦理实体,精神哲学形态,家庭,市民社会,国家
摘要 本文基于黑格尔的道德哲学主要是《精神现象学》和《法哲学》理论,对伦理实体的诸形态及其所形成的精神哲学体系进行研究。 在黑格尔哲学中,伦理不仅是一种本性上普遍的东西,同时又是一种实体性的现实,而伦理的实体性必须通过单一物与普遍物统一的精神才能达到。伦理获得自身实体性所经历的精神辩证发展过程,构成了伦理实体的精神哲学形态。由此,伦理实体一方面是在精神中存在的伦理实体化的诸环节,另一方面它本身又是伦理的客观性现实,呈现为家庭、市民社会和国家的现实形态。 家庭作为伦理实体的直接形态,其直接性就在于家庭中的关系不是个别成员之间的现实关系,而是个体与家庭实体之间的伦理关系。家庭在爱的情感关联中达到了个体与实体的精神性统一,并伴随着婚姻、家庭财产环节,在子女的成长和教育中走向解体。家庭的解体一方面扩大分化为更多的家庭,另一方面使个体走向了社会。个体在家庭中遵循神的规律,在社会中遵循人的规律,二者构成了伦理世界中的两大规律。由于两大规律之间的辩证发展与相互过渡的不同倾向,造成人的规律和神的规律地位的殊异,正是这种殊异造就了东西方文化样态的差别。由于家庭的解体,个体从家庭实体中走出,伦理世界中两大规律之间预定的平衡被个体的伦理行为打破,个体行为不再以家庭为内容,而是带着一种悲怆情愫进入了以个人为主宰的法权状态。于是,伦理实体便开始由直接形态的家庭向异化形态的市民社会过渡。 市民社会作为伦理实体的异化形态,异化的真义就在于市民社会中伦理的普遍性本质是假象地映现出来的。在法权状态下,个体沦为原子式的个人,伦理分裂为个体之间无精神、无共体的统一。个人为了自身的福利和利益的实现,通过相互关联组成的形式统一体被称为市民社会。因此,市民社会的精神实质是以特殊性个体为内容的形式普遍性,这一普遍性形成了以他人为中介的需要的体系。在市民社会内部,个体一方面以自身需要的满足为目的,另一方面又希求伦理的普遍性,而教育造就了个体的教养使他们具有提升为普遍性的内在可能,警察和同业公会则为伦理普遍性的实现提供了外部保障。然而,无论是从精神发展的逻辑来看,还是具体历史形态的考察,市民社会都是作为一种具有内在否定性和现实局限性而存在的阶段。特殊的个体与形式普遍性之间的矛盾作为市民社会的内在否定性,它与市民社会现实中存在的“伪善”问题、伦理道德悖论问题共同推动了市民社会向伦理实体的更高形态——国家过渡。 国家作为伦理理念的现实,它既摒弃了市民社会的形式普遍性,又保留了家庭的实体性精神,个体在国家中不仅获得了实体性规定,也获得了伦理的普遍性内容。因此,国家构成了伦理实体的复归形态。国家的精神本质是个体在其中意识到自己与实体的统一,并通过行动自觉地维护这种实体性。个体在国家中获得了自在自为的自由,而个体在对上帝的信仰中获得的自由与满足具有更高的普遍性,于是,在西方文化中宗教在抽象方面构成了国家的精神基础。而在历史和现实中,宗教与国家的关系也经历了由相互对立到良性互动的辩证发展过程;并且随着宗教在现代社会走向式微,西方国家理论自身发展的局限也逐渐显现出来。理念上完满的国家,在现实中远没有达到合理性的地步,依旧面临着各种局限性与内在矛盾。国家作为一个历史阶段的产物,意味着它必然会随着历史的发展走向终结。在这种情况下,中国的身—家—国—天下文化模式为伦理实体形态的进一步发展提供了可能。国家之上的天下观念作为比国家具有更大伦理普遍性的理念,为现代伦理实体建构提供了直接的文化资源。 现代社会信息技术的发展,使人类文化的互通和交流超越国界。信息技术的冲击,伦理实体的祛魅、解构和颠覆使现代文明遭遇“道德的异乡人”的难题。伦理实体的诸形态及其所形成的精神哲学体系,将人类共同体理解为一种伦理实体形态,可以为人提供安身立命的基地和精神家园,为“道德异乡人”指引一条伦理的“归乡”之路。
英文题目 STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL SPIRITUAL FORMS OF ETHICAL ENTITY——BASED ON HEGEL’S MORAL PHILOSOPHY
英文主题词 ethical entity, the form of spiritual philosophy, family, civil society, the state
英文摘要 Based on Hegel’s theory of moral philosophy mainly in Phenomenology of Spirit and Philosophy of Law, this paper studies the various forms of ethical entities and their spiritual philosophy system. In Hegel’s philosophy, ethics is not only a universal thing in nature, but also an entity reality. The physical nature of ethics must be achieved through the unity of the spirit of the single object and the universal thing, and the spiritual dialectical process which the ethics have experienced in acquiring its own entity constitutes the spiritual philosophy form of the ethical entity. Therefore, the ethical entity is in the spirit of the existence of the ethical aspects, on the other hand, it is the objective reality of ethics, the family, civil society and the reality of the state. The direct form as an ethical entity is family that the relationship between which is not the actual relationship between individual members, but the ethical relationship between the individual and the family entity. The family has reached the spiritual unity between the individual and the entity in the emotional connection of love, and it is accompanied by the disintegration of the marriage, family property and children’s education link. Disintegration of the family on the one hand to expand the division into more families, on the other hand lead the individual to society. The individual in the family follows the hidden entity principle namely the God law, follows the public authoritative principle in the society namely the human law, both constitute the ethics world. Because of the different tendencies between the dialectical development and the mutual transition between the two laws, it is the different of the rule of man and the rule of God that this kind of different makes the difference between the eastern and Western cultural patterns. Due to the disintegration of the family, the individual is out of the family entity, the predetermined balance between the two laws in the ethical world is broken by the individual’s ethical behavior, the individual behavior is no longer the content of the family, but with a sorrowful sentiment into the right state of the individual. Thus, the ethical entity begins to transition from the direct-form family to the alienation-shaped civil society. The civil society is the alienation form of the ethical entity, the alienation means the universality of ethics in civil society is in the illusion. In the legal state, the individual becomes the individual of the atom, and the ethic is divided into the unity of the individual without spirit and without the common body. For the realization of their own welfare and benefit, the individual is called civil society through the form of interrelated composition. Therefore, the spiritual essence of the civil society is the universality of the content of the specific individual, which forms the system of the need of others as the intermediary. In the civil society, the individual on the one hand to the satisfaction of their own needs for the purpose, on the other hand, the universality of ethics, and education to nurture the individual’s upbringing so that they have a promotion of the inherent possibility of universality, the police and the Association for the realization of the ethical universality provides the external guarantee However, whether it is from the logic of spiritual development or the investigation of concrete historical form, civil society is a stage which exists as a kind of inherent negation and reality limitation. The contradiction between the special individual and the form universality is the inner negation of the civil society, and it promotes the higher form of the civil society to the ethical entity-the state transition, which is the "hypocrisy" problem and the ethical and moral paradox in the civil society reality. As the reality of the ethical idea, the state has not only abandoned the universality of the civil society, but also retained the entity spirit of the family, and the individual has not only obtained the substantive stipulation in the country, but also obtained the universal content of the ethic. Therefore, the State constitutes the reversion form of the ethical entity. The spiritual essence of the state is that the individual realizes the unity of himself and the entity, and consciously maintains this entity through action. The individual obtains the freedom freely in the country, while the individual obtains the freedom and the satisfaction in the faith of God to have the higher universality, therefore, the religion has formed the National Spiritual Foundation in the abstract aspect. In history and reality, the relationship between religion and State has undergone dialectical development process from mutual antagonism to benign interaction, and with the decline of religion in modern society, the limitation of the development of national theory has gradually emerged. The perfect concept did not reach the point of rationality in reality, it still faces a variety of limitations and internal contradictions. The state as a product of the historical stage, which means that it will inevitably with the development of history to the end. In this case, China’s individual-family-state-the World cultural model has provide the possibility for the further development of ethical entities. The concept of the world above the state has greater ethical universality, and it has become a direct cultural resource of modern ethical entity construction. The development of modern social Information technology makes the exchange and communication of human culture transcend national boundaries. The impact of information technology, the disenchantment of ethical entities, deconstruction and subversion have caused the modern civilization to encounter the "moral stranger" problem. The various forms of the ethical entity and the spiritual philosophy system formed by it will understand the human community as an ethical entity form, provide a base for people to settle down and spiritual homeland, and guide an ethical "return to the countryside" for the "moral stranger".
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
苏、粤伦理学会 2012.11 南京医科大学 杨小钵 殊途同归的德性幸福之境
东南大学人文学院哲科系 2013.05 人文学院四楼会议室 潘锡杨 高校协同创新的哲学意蕴
江苏省委宣传部主办 2013.09 南京国际会议中心 李小燕 当代公民道德前沿研究综述
东南大学人文学院哲科系 2013.10 人文学院四楼会议室 杨小钵 婚姻的伦理面向
东南大学人文学院哲科系 2013.11 人文学院五楼学术活动中心 胡芮 先秦“圣人”道德形态嬗变的伦理意蕴
江苏省“道德发展智库”、东南大学 2015.11 榴园宾馆 杨小钵 公信力的道德哲学辨析
东南大学人文学院哲科系 2015.12 九龙湖宾馆 覃小妮 家训文化对践行传统美德的现代意义
江苏省委宣传部、江苏省社科联 2016.01 双门楼宾馆 杨小钵 “德者得也”的哲学形态及其对道德建设的启示
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
苏、粤伦理学年会 2012.11 南京医科大学 殊途同归的德性幸福之境
江苏省社科界第九届学术大会学会专场 2016.01 双门楼宾馆 “德者得也”的哲学形态及其对道德建设的启示
     
代表作
论文名称
公信力的道德哲学辨析
网络主体的伦理思考
黑格尔 法哲学视阈下婚姻的伦理解读
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
黄明理 正高 博导 博导 河海大学
陈继红 正高 博导 博导 南京大学
岳瑨 正高 博导 博导 东南大学
魏福明 副高 博导 东南大学
徐嘉 正高 博导 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
万旭 其他 东南大学