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类型 应用研究 预答辩日期 2018-04-24
开始(开题)日期 2015-06-10 论文结束日期 2018-02-28
地点 李文正楼六楼大会议室 论文选题来源 其他项目    论文字数 7.8 (万字)
题目 短毫米波宽带倍频与谐波混频技术研究
主题词 短毫米波,W波段,D波段,G波段,Schottky二极管
摘要 短毫米波固态倍频器和混频器作为短毫米波通信、雷达、测量、电子对抗等宽带应用系统的核心部件,其宽带响应特性对整个系统的性能起着决定性的作用。针对基于肖特基二极管的毫米波宽带倍频器设计中容易出现的功率凹点问题以及宽带混频器设计中常见的变频损耗峰值点问题,本文基于Schottky二极管宽带精确模型,以实现低成本高性能宽带倍频与混频器为目标,在深入研究影响倍频电路与混频电路宽带响应特性主要因素的基础上,提出了有效的分析与解决方法,并应用于W波段、D波段以及G波段宽带倍频器和W波段二次谐波混频器的研制中。本文主要研究进展包括: 1. 短毫米波多通道阵列式成像系统推广应用中,高昂的器件成本已成为制约其发展的主要问题。为了采用低成本的Schottky二极管研制出高性价比的倍频与混频器件,本文采用场路结合的方法,针对MACOM公司的MA4E1310和Alpha公司的DMK2308两种Schottky二极管,利用HFSS结合ADS软件,建立了包含封装材料寄生效应和管芯非线性特性的宽带精确模型,基于该模型设计了两款宽带倍频器测试样品,在50~110GHz范围内的输出功率测试结果与仿真结果一致性良好,从而验证了这两种Schottky二极管宽带精确模型的正确性,为后续多种毫米波宽带倍频器以及混频器电路的优化设计打下了重要基础。 2. 提出了基于传输系数极小点全波仿真技术的毫米波宽带倍频器功率凹点问题的分析方法。采用无源电路全尺寸三维电磁模型结合Schottky管宽带精确模型, 通过分析基波信号从射频输入端口到肖特基结集总端口(lumpport)以及谐波信号从肖特基结集总端口到射频输出端口之间在宽频带范围内的传输特性,直观地找出产生传输系数极小点的电路关键部位及具体尺寸。 通过实验测试验证了传输系数极小点与倍频器功率凹点之间的对应关系。利用该方法,可以快速移除指定工作频带范围内的输出功率凹点,为宽带倍频电路的设计提供了一种有效的优化设计方法。 3. 针对采用较低截止频率的Schottky二极管设计的W波段全波段三倍频器高端性能下降的问题,在传统“去嵌入法”提取二极管等效电路参数工作基础上,改进了阻抗参数提取方法。针对DBES105a二极管,将管子封装、焊盘(安装二极管的微带端线)及邻近的腔体空间作为一个子区域进行三维建模分析,结合Schottky结的非线性模型,深入研究了焊盘尺寸、管子安装高度及腔体尺寸对输入输出阻抗宽带特性的影响。采用上述基于传输系数极小点的功率凹点分析方法,仿真分析了基波和谐波信号传输系数极小点随关键尺寸的变化规律,优化设计了W波段宽带无源三倍频器。实验测试结果表明,倍频器在W波段全波段的输出功率为5±1.25dBm。另外,对由MA4E1310组成的反向并联二极管对和DMK2308二极管也作了相应的仿真分析与实验研究,测试结果表明,两款倍频器输出功率在W波段全波段无明显功率凹点。以上实验验证了本文提出的宽带倍频电路设计方法的有效性。 4. 为了提高短毫米波段Schottky 固态器件倍频器的功率容量,提出了将同向并联的两个串联型双肖特基管连同其安装微带焊盘作为一个整体的功分/合成单元的全波分析设计方法,采用无源结构三维全尺寸电磁模型与分布式多肖特基管芯精确模型相结合的一体化仿真分析技术,以宽频带内提高基波功分效率和谐波合成效率为目标,优化设计安装二极管的焊盘尺寸及分布间距。采用这种方法,优化设计了D波段和G波段宽带二倍频器电路参数并进行了实验研究。D波段二倍频器在20dBm激励功率下,在135~160GHz频段内的输出功率2.0~7.0dBm,其中140~150GHz频段内输出功率6±1dBm;G波段二倍频器在W波段17dBm的功率激励下,在166~188GHz的频率范围内的输出功率0.5±2.5dBm。 5. 为了解决传统的波导多孔耦合器分析设计公式复杂、计算量大并且在短毫米波段工艺实现难度大的问题,提出了一种基于等间距分布、等半径多孔结构的短毫米波段波导定向耦合器的快速设计方法。优化设计了W波段10dB和8.5dB全波段波导定向耦合器,测试所得耦合系数平坦度、附加损耗等参数的宽带性能优良,验证了所提出的设计方法的有效性。为实现W波段信号从波导到微带高平坦度、全波段的波导-对脊鳍线-微带转换,采用了金属化通孔抑制高次模,并分析了金属化通孔关键尺寸参数对转换结构频响特性曲线的影响,研制了基于不同长度的背靠背波导-对极鳍线-微带转换结构实验样品,测试结果显示,在整个W频段,背靠背波导-对极鳍线-微带转换结构具有优良平坦的传输特性。 6. 在全面分析谐波混频器本振信号和射频信号从输入端到混频管肖特基结耦合效率的基础上,提出了基于传输系数全波分析技术的短毫米波宽带二次谐波混频器变频损耗峰值问题的分析与解决方法。根据仿真分析,指出本振和射频信号到肖特基结lumpport端的传输系数极小点是形成变频损耗峰值点的主要原因。基于DBES105a与MA4E1310肖特基管的精确模型及其所构成的反向并联二极管对电路模型,通过移除工作频带内的传输谷点,优化设计了不同的电路拓扑结构的 W波段宽带二次谐波混频器,并进行了实验研究。实测结果表明,基于DBES105a肖特基管的混频器在85~108GHz射频频率范围内变频损耗为12.5±2.5dB;基于MA4E1310肖特基管的混频器在80~100GHz射频频率范围内的变频损耗为16.5±2.5dB。测试结果与仿真结果一致性较好,表明所提出的分析设计方法的正确性和有效性。
英文题目 Research on Techniques of Broadband Frequency-multipliying and Harmonic Mixing at Short-millimeter Wavelengths
英文主题词 Short-millimeter wave, W-band, D-band, G-band, Schottky diode
英文摘要 Short-millimeter wave solid-state frequency multipliers and mixers are crucial components in communication, radar, test instrument, electronic countermeasures (ECM) and many other broadband application systems. Their broadband frequency response characteristics play a decisive role in the whole system performance. Aiming at solving the problem of power nulls in broadband Schottky diode based frequency multipliers and conversion peak point in broadband Schottky mixers, with the purpose of realizing cost-effective and high performance broadband frequency multipliers and mixers based on the accurate and broadband Schottky diode model, main factors affecting the broadband frequency response characteristics of frequency multiplying and mixing circuit have been studied in depth in this dissertation. Effective methods of analysis have been proposed and applied to develop broadband frequency multipliers at W-band, D-band and G-band and sub-harmonic mixers at W-band. The main achievements of this dissertation are as follows: 1. High-cost device has become the main problem that restricts its development in the popularization of short-millimeter wave multichannel array systems such as high resolution imaging radars. In order to develop high performance frequency multipliers and mixers with cost-effective Schottky diodes, accurate and broadband diode models of MA4E1310 delivered by MACOM and DMK2308 from Alpha Industries, Inc. have been established. The package parasitic effect of diode material is considered based on the software HFSS combined with ADS. Simulated and measured output power of two prototype multipliers developed based on the established diode models are in good agreement in the band of 50~110GHz, which verifies the precise of these two diode models. This work provides an important foundation for the subsequent design and optimization of short-millimeter wave broadband frequency multiplier and mixer circuits. 2. An effective analysis method for output power nulls in millimeter wave broadband frequency multipliers based on full-wave electromagnetic simulation of transmission notch is proposed. Fundamental signal from the RF input port to Schottky lumpports and the harmonics from Schottky lumpports to RF output port are analyzed by utilizing full wave 3-D electromagnetic passive circuit model and accurate broadband diode model. Key circuit parts and their dimensions that result in power nulls are calculated and intuitively analyzed. The relationship between the simulated transmission notches and measured power nulls are verified by the experimental test. The proposed method can be used to quickly remove the power null in working frequency band and provide an effective design and optimization method for short-millimeter wave broadband frequency multiplier and mixer circuits. 3. In order to improve the characteristic of W-band frequency triplers at upper end of the full frequency band, extraction method of impedance parameters is improved based on traditional ‘de-embedding method’ by including mounding pads between the properly specified reference planes. Aiming at Schottky based circuit design, the package of the diodes, mounting pads (microstrip ends upon which the diodes are mounted) as well as their adjacent cavity region are treated as an independent sub-region and then analyzed by an improved method to extract the equivalent impedance parameters of the sub-region. The effects of the dimensions of the pads, the mounting height as well as the dimension of shielding cavity on the performance of the input and output impedance over a broad frequency band are investigated in depth. Utilizing the power null analysis method based on transmission notches, the fundamental and harmonic transmission notches are analyzed and a full band W band passive tripler is designed and optimized. A prototype of the tripler has been fabricated and tested. With an input driving power of about 20dBm at Ka-band, the tripler delivers about 5 dBm output power with a variation of less than ±1.25 dB across 75~110 GHz frequency range. Furthermore, corresponding simulation analysis and experimental study on the anti-parallel diode pair of MA4E1310 and DMK2308 also made. The above measured results verify the effectiveness of the proposed circuit optimization design method. 4. In order to improve power capacity of Schottky diode based solid-state frequency multipliers in short millimeter wave, full wave analysis method are proposed based on a divider/combiner unit of two parallel diodes combined with mounting pads. Integrated simulation analysis technology of full wave 3-D electromagnetic passive circuit model combine with distributed accurate Schottky multi-anode diode model is utilized. The pads’ dimension and distance between them can be calculated under optimizing goal of broadband high power division and harmonic synthesis efficiency, D band and G frequency broadband doubler are developed and tested. With an input driving power of about 20 dBm, the D-band douber delivers an output power of 2.0~7.0 dBm over the bands of 135~160GHz band, 6±1 dBm across the band of 140~152 GHz, the G-band doubler delivers an output power of 0.5±2.5dBm across the band of 166~188GHz with an input driving power of about 17dBm. 5. In order to solve the problem of complicated analysis and formula in the design of traditional waveguide multi-apertures coupler, a fast and effective approach to the design of waveguide directional couplers based on equally distributed identical circular apertures is proposed. Two prototypes of full-band 10 dB and 8.5dB W band couplers are designed and fabricated, the measured performance of the couplers, such as the flatness of the coupling coefficient, the additional loss and other parameters, verifies the effectiveness of the proposed design method. In order to realize a flat characteristic and full-band W-band waveguide-antipodal finline-mircostrip, metalized through-hole is used to suppress high electromagnetic modes, and the influence of key dimension parameters of metalized through-hole on the frequency response characteristic curve of transmission line is analyzed. The experimental samples of back-to-back waveguide-antipodal finline-mircostrip transmission line are developed with different lengths. The flat transmission performances in W-band of the waveguide-antipodal finline-mircostrip are evaluated by experiments in back-to-back configurations. 6. Based on comprehensive analysis of coupling efficiency of mixer’s local and RF signal from input port to mixer Schottky lumpports, analysis and solution method of conversion loss peak points in short millimeter wave broadband subharmonic mixer is proposed based on full wave analysis technology of transmission coefficient. According to the simulation analysis, the transmission notches of the local and RF frequency signal to Schottky lumpports result in peak points of frequency conversion loss. Based on the accurate DBES105a and MA4E1310 Schottky diode model combine with their anti-parallel configuration diode pair circuits, the optimization design and experimental study of the W-band harmonic mixer with two different circuit topology structures have been done by removing the working band transmission notches. The measured results show that the frequency conversion loss of the DBES105a Schottky based mixer is 12.5±2.5dB over 85~108GHz RF frequency band, and the conversion loss of the mixer based on MA4E1310 Schottky in the RF frequency range of 80~100GHz is 16.5±2.5dB. The results of the test are in good agreement with the simulation results, which shows the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed analysis and design method.
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
东南大学 2014.03.25 东南大学李文正楼中620 蒋姝 平行耦合微带滤波器研究
东南大学 2015.04.02 东南大学李文正楼中620 刘志强 4.2GHz十二倍频器研究
东南大学 2015.05.10 东南大学李文正楼中620 刘刚 Ka波段接收机关键模块研究
东南大学 2017.04.12 东南大学无线谷1号楼1319会议室 Gérard Memmi, Télécom ParisTech Energy/Frequency rule relative to software energy consumption
东南大学 2013.07.25 东南大学李文正楼中620 窦江玲 W波段全波段波导定向耦合器设计
东南大学 2014.04.02 东南大学李文正楼中620 窦江玲 Design of D-band frequency doubler with compact power combiner
东南大学 2014.05.10 东南大学李文正楼中620 窦江玲 W波段全波段三倍频器优化设计
东南大学 2014.07.10 东南大学李文正楼中620 窦江玲 W波段宽带谐波混频器研究
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
中国电子学会 2015.06.01 中国安徽合肥高速开元酒店 W 波段全波段波导定向耦合器的快速设计
美国电磁科学院 2017.05.25 俄罗斯圣彼得堡Park Inn酒店 Accurate Design of a W-band Full Band Frequency Tripler Based on Anti-parallel GaAs Schottky Varistor Diode Pair
     
代表作
论文名称
Design of D-band frequency doubler with compact power combiner
Simple and accurate design of GaAs Schottky diode model
Design of a G-band frequency doubler based on a pair of parallelly mounted dual-diode chips
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
窦文斌 正高 教授、博导 博导 东南大学
顾长青 正高 教授、博导 博导 南京航空航天大学
薄亚明 正高 教授、博导 博导 南京邮电大学
朱晓维 正高 教授、博导 博导 东南大学
赵洪新 正高 教授、博导 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
王文博 副高 讲师 东南大学