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类型 应用研究 预答辩日期 2018-01-28
开始(开题)日期 2015-12-17 论文结束日期 2017-10-30
地点 逸夫建筑管602 论文选题来源 973、863项目     论文字数 7.5 (万字)
题目 砒砂岩区抗蚀促生技术研究
主题词 抗蚀促生,水力侵蚀, 力学性能, 紫外耐久性, 产沙量
摘要 砒砂岩是形成于中生代的一种厚层砂岩、砂页岩和泥岩组成的互层,主要分布在黄河中上游流域晋陕蒙接壤区。由于其成岩程度低,遇水则松软如烂泥,遇风则风化剥蚀,且当地是半干旱气候,降雨量少,暴雨集中,风沙大,植被稀少,坡面水土流失极为严重,生态环境脆弱,对自然、生态和环境的影响很大。目前主要的治理措施为工程和生物措施,但都存在一定的局限性,对砒砂岩坡面治理缺乏有效措施,因此亟需一种综合治理措施,以实现砒砂岩区的水土保持和生态恢复。本文针对砒砂岩的特点、水力侵蚀机理及前期的研究成果,首次提出了基于一种亲水聚氨酯材料(W-OH)的抗蚀促生技术,并开展了系统的研究。具体研究内容如下: 1)系统研究了砒砂岩的基本性能。研究了砒砂岩的主要化学组成、矿物组成、粒径分布、力学性能、营养物质成分、微观结构等特点,重点分析了其易受侵蚀的主要原因。 2)开发合成了一种亲水性聚氨酯(W-OH)材料。研究了其合成条件、粘度、凝胶固化机理,固化体抗拉强度、紫外耐久性、微观结构及安全性,得到了其主要合成工艺。该材料以水为固化剂,遇水反应可迅速形成具有一定力学强度的多孔柔性凝胶体,且具有高度的安全性。 3)系统研究了W-OH固结风化砒砂岩的抗蚀促生综合性能,并在此基础上提出了通过添加功能材料(如聚丙烯醇(PVA)、乙烯-醋酸乙烯共聚物(EVA)等)提升固结促生性能。开展了材料在砒砂岩中的渗透性能、浸润性性能,固结层的力学性能、抗水蚀性(水稳性指数K)、微观结构、紫外耐久性、保水、保肥及植被萎蔫试验,重点分析了W-OH对砒砂岩的固结和促生机理,得到了固结砒砂岩的适合浓度和喷洒量及耐久性的提升方案。 4)评价了固结层的抗水力侵蚀性能。开展了室内模拟冲刷试验、模拟降雨试验及现场模拟冲刷试验,重点分析了模拟冲刷试验中冲刷流量、坡度、W-OH浓度及喷洒量对径流量、产沙量、径流流速、雷诺数(Re)及弗劳德数(Fr)的影响,模拟降雨试验中降雨强度、坡度、植被覆盖率及W-OH浓度对径流量、产沙量及坡面形态的影响;探讨了降雨条件下侵蚀过程了,得到了坡面产沙量与各影响因素的回归关系方程。 5)开展了现场小区试验,建立了砒砂岩抗蚀促生技术体系,并进行了推广应用。在内蒙古准格尔旗的二老虎沟小流域,针对一个典型坡面,采用W-OH材料固结及材料措施对坡面进行了治理,并设置对比小区,重点观察和监测了其坡面形态变化、产沙量变化及植被恢复情况;研发了新型一体化施工设备,形成了抗蚀促生技术施工工艺,在砒砂岩区、福建崩岗区、黄河中下游河道沙土区、公路边坡等开展了工程应用。
英文题目 Research on the technique of soil erosion prevention and vegetation promotion in Pisha sandstone area
英文主题词 Erosion resistance and growth promotion, Hydraulic erosion, Mechanical property, UV durability, Sediment yield
英文摘要 Pisha sandstone, formed in the Mesozoic Era with an interbed of thick sandstone, sand shale and mudstone, is widely distributed in semi-arid area in Shanxi, Shaanxi province and also in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region within the Yellow River basin. Because of its low degree of diagenesis, it is as hard as a solid rock when it is dry. However, it becomes soft and almost muddy once exposed to water and is prone to wind and water erosions. Additionally, the Pisha sandstone area is a semi-arid climate with less rainfall, mostly heavy rainfall, strong wind and sand storms, and low vegetation coverage. Therefore, the water and soil loss are extremely serious, the ecological environment is fragile, ant it has a great impact on natural, ecology and environment. Currently, the main measures are engineering and vegetation measures. However, these predominantly used approaches all have some limitations, especially for the slopes, there are no effective measures. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to find a comprehensive control measure to realize the goals of water and soil conservation and ecological restoration in Pisha sandstone area. Based on the study of the characteristics of Pisha sandstone, the mechanism of hydraulic erosion and previous achievements, the technique of soil erosion prevention and vegetation promotion is firstly proposed based on a kind of hydraulic polyurethane (W-OH), and the systematic studies are conducted. The main steps and the precedures conducted in this study were as follows. 1) The basic characteristics of Pisha sandstone were studied systematically. The chemical components, mineral components, particle size distribution, mechanical properties, nutrient composition and micro-structure of Pisha sandstone were investigated and the main reasons for its susceptibility to erosion were analyzed emphatically. 2) A type of hydraulic polyurethane (W-OH) was synthetized and developed. The synthesis conditions, viscosity, curing mechanism of W-OH, the tensile strength, UV durability, microstructure and safety of the consolidation layer were studied, and W-OH was synthetized and the synthesis process and conditions were determined. W-OH can react with water rapidly to form a porous flexible gel with a certain mechanical strength and it is safe both in curing gel and consolidation layer (The weathered Pisha sandstone solidified by W-OH solution). 3) The comprehensive erosion prevention and vegetation promotion performance of consolidation layer were studied systematically, and the functional materials such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) were used in combination with W-OH to increase the consolidation and growth promotion. The experiments including the wettability, permeability of composite materials on Pisha sandstone, mechanical properties, the anti-scourability (water stability index K), microstructure, UV durability, water and fertilizer retention and vegetation wilting were conducted. The mechanism of consolidation, erosion prevention and vegetation promotion was analyzed, and the proper concentration and spraying amount of W-OH and the methods to improve the UV durability of the consolidation layer were obtained. 4) The anti-scourability of the consolidation layer under scouring and rainfall conditions was evaluated. The simulated scouring tests both in lab and field and simulated rainfall tests in lab were conducted. The effects of scouring flow, slope angle, concentration and spraying amount of W-OH on runoff, sediment yield, runoff velocity, Reynolds number (Re) and Froude number (Fr) in simulated scouring tests, and the effects of rainfall intensity, slope angle, vegetation coverage and concentration of W-OH on runoff, sediment yield and slope morphology in simulated rainfall tests were analyzed. The hydraulic erosion process and the relationship between the sediment yield and the influencing factors under rainfall conditions were discussed and obtained by regression and fitting analysis. 5) Field experiments were conducted, the proposed technique of erosion resistance and growth promotion was established and it was extended and applied. The field experiments were conducted in Erlaohu ditch in Zhungeer Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous region, China, the measure combined with W-OH and vegetation was applied in an entire typical slope and a control one without treatment by W-OH was designed. Subsequently, the surface morphology changes, sediment yield and vegetation restoration were observed and monitored. A new type of integrated construction equipment was developed and the construction methodology was established. Finally, the extended applications via using the erosion resistance and growth promotion technique in Pisha sandstone area, slope disintegration erosion area, river bank slope in sandy soil area in the middle and lower reached of the Yellow River and roadside slope were carried out.
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
中科院南京土壤所 2016.09.25 南京会议中心 周连碧 矿区重金属污染治理与生态恢复技术
东南大学 2016.06.06 榴园宾馆新华厅 谢礼立 建设可康复的城镇防灾体系
东南大学 2015.01.15 逸夫科技馆报告厅 聂建国 科研体会-组合结构的创新与实践
东南大学 2014.10.11-12 榴园宾馆新华厅 院士等 土木工程改革与创新囯际论坛
东南大学城市工程科学技术研究院 2016.4.18 玄武岩工程中心 梁止水 W-OH材料及其关键应用技术介绍
帕多瓦大学信息学院 2015.10.21 帕多瓦大学信息学院会议室 梁止水 Technology of resistance to erosion and vegetation promotion
东南大学城市工程科学技术研究院 2014.10.21 礼东楼103 梁止水 砒砂岩抗蚀促生技术研发介绍
黄河水利科学研究院 2015.04.09 准格尔旗双满酒店 梁止水 砒砂岩抗蚀促生技术研发
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
Committee of Tech-connection of Advanced Materials 2015.08.06 Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan Effect of simulated corrosion environment on mechanical performances of sand fixation by hydrophilic polyurethane
中国水土保持学会 2016.12. 23-24 北京西郊宾馆
     
代表作
论文名称
A new ecological control method based on hydrophilic polyurethane for Pisha sandstone
基于 W-OH 的砒砂岩抗蚀促生机理研究
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
葛汉彬 正高 教授 博导 名城大学
姚文艺 正高 教授级高工 博导 黄河水利科学研究院
张平仓 正高 教授级高工 博导 长江科学院
梁音 正高 研究员 博导 中国科学院南京土壤研究所
杨才千 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
王占飞 正高 教授 硕导 沈阳建筑大学
邓琳 副高 副教授 博导 东南大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
管东芝 其他 讲师 东南大学