Since the reform and opening up, China’s social economy has achieved rapid and sustained development, and people’s living standards have been improved continuously. But at the same time, it also brings a series of problems, such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, which seriously restricts the sustainable development of China’s social economy. Therefore, China’s economic development needs more consideration of the constraints of natural capital, and it needs to shift its focus from the pursuit of the expansion of material capital to the development of human welfare. In the "13th Five-Year" planning, China points out that the emphasis on innovation development, harmonious development, green development, opening development and sharing development is a profound change, which is related to the overall development of China. In view of innovation development and green development, based on the existing research, this paper researches into the innovation driving mechanism of China’s green development from the perspective of the ecological welfare performance. This study would be helpful in understanding economic development from a broader perspective, benefical in enriching the theoretical research of the green development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and conducive to the realization of the sustainable development of China’s social economy.
In the past, economic development focuses on GDP and people’s income. Marx’s theory of social development emphasizes the free and overall development of human beings, while the overall development of human beings should constantly improve the level of human welfare. This means that economic development should not only take into account income, but also take into account the education and life expectancy of people. Marx’s theory of social development also emphasizes the harmonious development of human and nature. Therefore, the level of natural consumption should be taken into consideration in the process of improving the level of human welfare. According to the above analysis of Marx’s theory of social development, this paper investigates innovation driving mechanism of green development in China from the perspective of the ecological welfare performance, which represents the ratio of the level of human welfare to the level of natural consumption.
In this paper, we provide the definition of green development: green development is a development model, with the aim of minimizing natural consumption and maximizing human welfare, namely, in economic activities green development works with a minimum amount of natural consumption to maximize the human welfare. Therefore, the goal of green development is to realize the development of "high welfare and low consumption". From the perspective of the ecological welfare performance, this paper studies the green development of China’s 31 regions in 2001-2015 years. The study finds that a few areas are "high welfare, low consumption" type, while most of areas are "low welfare, low consumption" or "low welfare, high consumption" type. Besides, this paper researches on the influencing factors and the decoupling status of green development, as well as the relationship between green development and economic growth. The results show that: concerning green development of Chinese regions, technological effects play a driving role, while service effects play an inhibitory role; the decoupling relationship between human welfare and natural resources consumption shows a good trend; there is an N-type relationship between green development and economic growth.
What is the driving force for the goal of "high welfare and low consumption" of green development? In this regard, general secretary Xi Jinping proposes "putting innovation in the core position of the country’s overall development", "innovation as a leading force for the development " and other major judgments. Based on the innovation theory, this paper expounds the innovation driving mechanism of green development. This paper theoretically analyzes the existence of a co-evolutionary relationship among technology innovation, system innovation and green development, and checks this relationship. The results verify that basically there is a co-evolutionary relationship among technology innovation, system innovation and green development. At the same time, the paper analyzes the synergy degree among technological innovation, system innovation and green development. The results show that during "10th Five-Year", "11th Five-Year" and "12th Five-Year", the synergy degree among technological innovation, system innovation and green development in China is low, and there has not yet formed a coordination mechanism among them.
According to the above study of China’s green development, this paper analyzes evolution characteristics of green development and innovation driven policies of four five-year plans from 2001 to 2020, and the typical international successful experience of green development. As for four types: "high welfare, low consumption", "high welfare, high consumption", "low welfare, low consumption" and "low welfare, high consumption", this paper provides improvement paths for different types of green development and related policy suggestions for technology innovation, system innovation and collaborative innovation.
In short, this paper does systematic studies on theoretical basis, measurement methods, innovation driving mechanism and relevant policy suggestions for China’s green development from the perspective of ecological welfare performance. It provides reference basis for the decision making for China’s green development, thus has high theoretical value and practical significance.