返回
类型 应用研究 预答辩日期 2018-01-12
开始(开题)日期 2016-05-31 论文结束日期 2017-09-17
地点 东南院305 论文选题来源 国家自然科学基金项目     论文字数 12.7 (万字)
题目 正式与非正式组织架构的互动关系对绩效的影响
主题词 组织架构,正式组织,非正式组织,社会网络,绩效
摘要 正式组织与非正式组织是企业组织架构的两种重要形态。其中,正式组织是指有意识的协调活动、或控制两个或多个人行动的系统;非正式组织则是指企业中人们之间无意识的、持续的或反复的接触而形成的特殊组织关系。目前,从国内和世界范围来看,正式与非正式组织的冲突和矛盾仍在不断升级,几乎每年都有大量的国内外企业被曝出因正式或非正式组织管理不当而产生的问题。如国内的湖北荆州7.26电梯“吃人”事件、富士康事件,以及国外的智利埃斯康迪达铜矿罢工事件、波司登、百丽等关店收窄事件等等。随着中国经济进入“新常态”,经济结构转型由“结构性增速”步入到“结构性减速”,以及“互联网+”的背景趋势,使得中国企业对正式与非正式组织架构提出了更高的要求。本文从结构视角、控制视角、沟通视角三个视角对正式与非正式组织的整体架构及其对绩效的影响和作用情境机制进行了理论和实证研究,其中涵盖了静态与动态两个角度、短期与长期两个方向、部门、管理者和员工三个方面的研究内容。 首先,本文提出了一个较为完整的正式与非正式组织架构的互动关系框架,并结合组织双元平衡理论对其进行了解释。当前关于正式与非正式组织架构的研究主要包括正式与非正式网络(结构)、正式与非正式控制及正式与非正式沟通等三个方面,其中,正式与非正式网络关注组织静态结构单元的层级数量和关系,是当前的主流研究视角;正式与非正式控制关注组织结构单元自上而下的权力划分,是一种垂直的动态权力流分配;而正式与非正式沟通则关注组织结构单元之间的信息交流,是一种水平的动态信息流分配。三大视角相互包容,密切联系,从不同方面共同构成了企业正式和非正式组织的整体架构的重要方面。本文首先结合这三个方面描绘了一个较为完整的正式与非正式组织架构图,包括正式与非正式网络一致性、正式与非正式控制匹配、正式与非正式沟通匹配三个方面,其中网络类似于人的“骨架支撑”,而控制和沟通则类似于人的“血液的流淌”,各视角相辅相成,不可或缺。此外,组织双元理论认为,企业需确保在内部不同利用机制和探索机制之间实现平衡,从而保证企业机制的可持续运行。我们认为,正式网络与非正式网络(结构)、正式控制与非正式控制、正式沟通与非正式沟通正是组织双元利用机制和探索机制在组织中的不同反映。具体地,正式网络与非正式网络一致性为结构双元平衡机制反映;正式控制与非正式控制匹配为组织双元平衡机制反映;正式沟通与非正式沟通匹配为情境双元平衡机制反映。因此,从本质上来说,网络一致性(结构)、控制匹配、沟通匹配均是不同组织双元元素在组织中的匹配反映,从而共同构成了完整的正式与非正式组织架构。 其次,本文从部门整体结构视角对正式与非正式网络一致性对绩效的影响及其作用机理和情境因素进行了考察,并利用社会网络工具对典型样本的整体网络结构进行了分析。本文首次从部门视角重新解释了正式与非正式网络一致性的概念,并考察了它们对绩效的影响。研究结果表明,第一,不同部门正式与非正式网络一致性对短期市场绩效和长期组织绩效具有不同的影响。其中,顺序工作流和朋友网一致性对市场绩效具有负向影响;权力网和朋友网一致性对市场绩效具有正向影响;互动工作流和朋友网非一致性对组织绩效具有倒U型影响。第二,结构利用在权力网和朋友网一致性与市场绩效之间发挥中介作用;结构探索在互动工作流和朋友网非一致性与组织绩效之间发挥中介作用。其中,权力网和朋友网一致性对结构利用具有正向影响;互动工作流和朋友网非一致性对结构探索具有倒U型影响;结构利用对市场绩效具有正向影响;结构探索对组织绩效具有正向影响。第三,环境动态性对结构利用发挥了正向的调节作用,并且在顺序工作流和朋友网一致性、权力网和朋友网一致性与市场绩效之间发挥了有调节的中介作用。此外,本部分也结合社会网研究工具UCINET6. 487对典型样本的整体网络结构进行了分析。 再次,从管理者控制的视角考察了不同正式与非正式控制匹配对绩效的影响。正式与非正式控制是两种重要的组织控制机制,而当前研究大多忽视了对其匹配问题进行探讨,基于当前主流的控制结构划分和组织双元理论的视角,本文将正式与非正式控制匹配模式划分为基于结果控制和社交控制匹配组合的关系导向控制模式、基于结果控制和文化控制匹配组合的官僚目标控制模式、基于过程控制和社交控制匹配组合的人际影响控制模式,以及基于过程控制和文化控制匹配组合的文化熏陶控制模式,并进一步考察了其对绩效的影响及其内在机理和情境因素。研究结果表明,第一,关系导向控制模式对市场绩效具有负向影响,官僚目标控制模式对市场绩效具有倒U型影响,人际影响控制模式对组织绩效具有U型影响,文化熏陶控制模式对组织绩效具有正向影响。第二,双元一致性在关系导向控制模式、官僚目标控制模式与市场绩效之间发挥中介作用;双元适应性在人际影响控制模式、文化熏陶控制与组绩效之间发挥中介作用。其中,关系导向控制模式对双元一致性具有负向影响;官僚目标控制模式对双元一致性具有U型影响;人际影响控制对双元适应性具有U型影响;文化熏陶控制对双元适应性具有正向影响;双元一致性对市场绩效具有正向影响;双元适应性对组织绩效具有正向影响。第三,环境动态性对双元一致性具有负向的调节作用;环境复杂性对双元适应性具有正向的调节作用。并且,环境动态性在官僚目标控制模式与市场绩效之间发挥有调节的中介作用;环境复杂性在人际影响控制模式、文化熏陶控制模式与组织绩效之间发挥有调节的中介作用。 最后,从员工信息交流视角考察了正式与非正式沟通匹配对绩效的影响。当前研究大多将正式与非正式沟通割裂开来进行考察,本文基于部门内员工之间信息流动的视角,界定了正式与非正式沟通匹配的内涵,即员工在正式和非正式沟通中与其他员工相关联而表现出来的重叠程度,并分析其对短期市场绩效和长期组织绩效的影响及其内在机理和情境因素。研究结果表明,第一,正式与非正式沟通匹配对市场绩效和组织绩效均具有正向影响。第二,情境利用在正式与非正式沟通匹配与市场绩效之间发挥中介作用;情境探索在正式与非正式沟通匹配与组织绩效之间发挥中介作用。其中,正式与非正式沟通匹配对情境利用和情境探索具有正向影响;情境利用对市场绩效具有正向影响;情境探索对组织绩效具有正向影响。第三,环境动态性对情境利用发挥正向的调节作用;环境复杂性对情境探索均发挥正向的调节作用。但有调节的中介作用结果均不显著。该结论不仅对本文的正式与非正式组织架构的互动关系框架提供了有效支持,更重要的是为中国企业如何改善部门管理结构,包括部门结构、管理者控制和员工信息交流等指明了重要的方向。
英文题目 THE INFLUENCE OF MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES ON PERFORMANCE
英文主题词 Organizational structure,formal organization,informal organization,social network,performance
英文摘要 Formal organization and informal organization are two important forms of enterprise organizational structure. Between them, formal organization refers to the conscious coordination activities or systems that control two or more people’s actions; informal organization refers to special organizational relationships of unconscious, on-going, or repeated contacts among peoples in the enterprise. At present, from the domestic and worldwide perspective, the conflict and contradictions of formal and informal organizations are escalating constantly. There were large numbers of domestic and foreign enterprises that exposed the issues of corporate governance of formal or informal organization in every year. Such as Hubei Jingzhou 7.26 elevator “eat” incident, the domestic Foxconn event, as well as foreign Egyptian Escondido copper strike events, Bosideng, Belle and other stores to narrow the incident. With the Chinese economy into the “new normal”, the stage of transformation of economic structure from the “structural growth” into the “structural slowdown” and background era of “Internet +”, which all put forward a higher demand to formal and informal organizational structure of Chinese enterprises. This paper takes research on the overall structure of formal and informal organization and its impact on the performance and the mechanism of action from the perspective of structure, control and communication in theoretical and empirical analysis, which covers both methods of static and dynamic, two directions of short-term and long-term, three levels of departments, managers and employees. First of all, this paper puts forwark an integrated framework of mutual relationship between formal and informal organizational structure, and explains it from the theory of organizational ambidexterity. The current researches of formal and informal organizational structures focuses mainly on formal and informal network (structure), formal and informal controls, and formal and informal communication, where formal and informal network focus on organizational static structural units, the formal and informal control of focus on power division of organizational structureal units from top to bottom that is a distribution of vertical dynamic power flow; and formal and informal communication is concerned about the organizational structure with the information exchange within units that is a distribution of horizontal dynamic information flow. The three perspectives are inclusive and link closely, and constitute an important aspect of the overall structure of the formal and informal organization of the enterprise from different aspects together. This paper first describes a completely formal and informal organizational structure combining these three aspects, which include the consistency between formal and informal network, matching between formal and informal control and matching between formal and informal communication. The network is similar to people’s skeleton, and control and communication is similar to the people’s blood. Each view complements with each other and indispensable. In addition, the theory of organizational ambidexterity argues that enterprise needs to ensure a balance between exploitation and exploration mechanisms for sustainable competitiveness. We believe that formal network and informal network (structure), formal control and informal control, formal communication and informal communication are different reflections of exploitation and exploration mechanisms of organizational ambidexterity in organization. Specifically, the consistency between formal and informal network is the reflection of balance of structural ambidexterity; the matching between formal and informal control is the reflection of balance of organizational ambidexterity; the matching between formal and informal communication is the reflection of balance of contextual ambidexterity. Therefore, in essence, the network consistency (structure), control matching, communication matching are different matching elements of organizational ambidexterity in organization, which constitute a complete formal and informal organizational structure. Secondly, this paper analyzes the impact of consistency between formal and informal network on performance and its mechanism and context factors from the perspective of the whole structure of department, and analyzes the whole network structure of representative sampling using the tool of social network. This paper reinterprets the concept of consistency between formal and informal network from the perspective of department, and examines the impact of it on performance. The results show that, first, different consistencies between formal and informal network have different effects on short-term market performance and long-term organizational performance. Among them, the departmental consistency between sequential workflows network and friendship network has a negative influence on market performance; the departmental consistency between authority network and friendship network has a positive influence on market performance; the departmental inconsistency between reciprocal workflows network and friendship network has an inverted U-shaped influence on organizational performance. Second, structural exploitation plays a mediating role in departmental consistency between authority network and friendship network and market performance; structural exploration plays a mediating role in departmental consistency between reciprocal workflows network and friendship network and organizational performance. Among them, consistency between authority network and friendship network has a positive influence on the structural exploitation; inconsistency between reciprocal workflows network and friendship network has an inverted U-shaped influence on the structure exploration; structural exploitation has positive influence on market performance; structural exploration has positive influence on organizational performance. Third, environmental dynamics has a positive moderating effect on structural exploitation and has a moderated mediating effect between consistency of sequential workflows network and friendship network as well as consistency between authority network and friendship network and market performance. In addition, this part also analyzes the whole network structure of the typical sample using the social network research tool of UCINET6. 487. Thirdly, this paper analyzes the influence of matching between formal and informal controls on the performance from the perspective of managerial control. Formal and informal controls are two important organizational control mechanisms, and most of the current research has neglected the discussion of its matching problem. Based on the current mainstream control structure and the perspective of organizational ambidexterity theory, this paper divide the mode of matching between formal and informal control into relationship-oriented control mode based on matching between result control and social control, bureaucratic target control mode based on matching between result control and culture control, interpersonal influence control mode based on matching between process control and social control, and culture edification control mode based on matching between process control and cultural control, and further examine its impact on performance and its internal mechanism and contextual factors. The results show that, first, the relationship-oriented control mode has a negative influence on the market performance. The bureaucratic target control mode has an inverted U-shaped influence on the market performance. The interpersonal influence control mode has a U-shaped influence on organizational performance, and the culture edification control mode has a positive influence on organizational performance. Second, the consistency of ambidexterity plays a mediating role between the relationship-oriented control mode and market performance, and also plays a mediating role between the bureaucratic target control mode and market performance. The adaptability of ambidexterity plays a mediating role between the interpersonal influence control mode and organizational performance. Among them, the relationship-oriented control mode has a negative influence on the consistency of ambidexterity; the bureaucratic target control mode has a U-shaped influence on the consistency of ambidexterity; the interpersonal influence control mode has a positive influence on the adaptability of ambidexterity, and the culture edification control mode has a positive influence on adaptability of ambidexterity. Third, environmental dynamic has a negative moderating effect on the consistency of ambidexterity; environmental complexity has a positive moderating effect on the adaptability of ambidexterity. Besides, environmental dynamic plays a moderated mediating role in the bureaucratic target control mode and the market performance; environmental complexity plays a moderated mediating role in interpersonal impact control mode, cultural influence control mode and organizational performance. Finally, this paper analyzes the impact of the matching between formal and informal communication on performance from the perspective of employee communication. Based on the perspective of information flow between employees within the department, this paper defines the connotation of matching between formal and informal communication, namely, the overlap of employees’ communication in formal and informal communication with each other employees. And the paper analyzes its impact on short-term market performance and long-term organizational performance and its internal mechanism and situational factors. The results show that, first, matching between formal and informal communication has a positive influence on market performance and organizational performance. Second, contextual exploitation plays a mediating role in matching between formal and informal communication and market performance; contextual exploration plays a mediating role in matching between formal and informal communication and organizational performance. Among them, matching between formal and informal communication has a positive influence on contextual exploitation and contextual exploration; contextual exploitation and contextual exploration have a positive influence on market performance and organizational performance. Third, environmental dynamics has a positive moderating effect on contextual exploitation, and environmental complexity has a positive moderating effect on contextual exploration. However, the moderated mediating role of environmental dynamics and environmental complexity are not significant. This conclusions not only provides support effectively for the mutual framework of the formal and informal organizational structure of this paper, but also points out the direction of Chinese enterprises to improve the departmental governance structure including departmental structure, manager control and employee information communication.
学术讨论
主办单位时间地点报告人报告主题
东南大学经济管理学院 2017年6月3日 经管楼B201 李东 中国工商管理学科的明天:使命与路径
东南大学经济管理学院 2017年8月10日 经管楼A501 吴亮 Mplus7.4跨层分析
东南大学经济管理学院 2017 年8月20日 经管楼A516 吴亮 量表背翻与“本地化”处理
东南大学经济管理学院 2016年12月14日 经管楼B201 张贺发 互联网公开数据采集辅助学术研究
南京大学商学院 2017 年6月19日 安中楼202 张震 Foundation of Mediation and Moderation
东南大学经济管理学院 2017 年6月21日 经管楼A516 吴亮 整体网分析
东南大学经济管理学院 2017年9月7日 经管楼A501 吴亮 The Impact of Departmental Consistency between Formal and Informal Network on Performance
东南大学经济管理学院 2017年9月11日 经管楼A501 Ping Shao 工商管理研究设计与方法
     
学术会议
会议名称时间地点本人报告本人报告题目
第十届社会网及关系管理研究年会暨创新创业网络国际研讨会 2014年10月26日 南京理工大学 网络外部性对中国企业海外投资区位选择的影响
中国管理研究国际学会(IACMR 2016) 2016年6月16日 浙江大学 制度距离与中国企业海外进入模式选择:一个整合知识转移和合法性的框架
2016 5th International Conference on Business, Management and Governance 2016年10月24日 San Francisco, USA The Influence of Consistency between Formal and Informal Management Control on Organizational Performance
     
代表作
论文名称
网络外部性对中国企业海外投资区位选择的影响
资源禀赋、制度环境与中国企业海外进入模式选择
制度距离与中国企业海外进入模式选择:一个整合知识转移和合法性的框架
小步慢走还是大步快跑——行业经验对中国企业海外投资步伐的影响
家族企业治理模式的分类比较与演进规律
 
答辩委员会组成信息
姓名职称导师类别工作单位是否主席备注
刘洪 正高 教授 博导 南京大学 主任委员
谢乃明 正高 教授 博导 南京航空航天大学
李东 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
张玉林 正高 教授 博导 东南大学
李敏 正高 教授 硕导 南京大学
      
答辩秘书信息
姓名职称工作单位备注
鞠传静 其他 讲师 东南大学